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Voice of America, 97-01-13

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] BULGARIA PROTESTS (Q&A) BY KATYA KOSEVA (SOFIA)
  • [03] CYPRUS TALKS (L-O) CORRECT BY CHRIS DRAKE (NICOSIA)
  • [04] EURO STOCKS (S) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)
  • [05] JOULWAN / BOSNIA (S-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)
  • [06] RUSSIA / NATO (L) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)
  • [07] TURKEY / EUROPE BY KYLE KING (BONN)
  • [08] TURKEY LOOKS EAST BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)
  • [09] U-S / CYPRUS (S-ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

  • [01] MONDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=01/13/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09970
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=GARY EDQUIST
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON MONDAY JANUARY 13TH //

    INTRO: THE U-S PAPERS ARE FILLED WITH COMMENTARY CONCERNING TODAY'S SUPREME COURT HEARING OF A SEXUAL HARASSMENT CASE AGAINST THE PRESIDENT. OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE THE RECENT ELECTION IN SINGAPORE; THE SITUATION IN HONG KONG ; A PERCEIVED POWER SHIFT TOWARD THE SENATE AWAY FROM THE HOUSE; AND THE CONTINUING CONTROVERSY ABOUT SWISS BANK DEPOSITS OF HOLOCAUST VICTIMS. NOW, HERE IS _________________WITH A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: WHEN HE WAS GOVERNOR OF ARKANSAS, PRESIDENT BILL CLINTON ALLEGEDLY ASKED A LOWER-LEVEL FEMALE EMPLOYEE OF THE STATE TO HAVE SEX WITH HIM AT A LITTLE ROCK HOTEL. AFTER HE BECAME PRESIDENT, THE WOMAN, PAULA CORBIN JONES, FILED A SEXUAL HARASSMENT LAWSUIT, BUT THE PRESIDENT'S LAWYERS HAVE SAID A SITTING PRESIDENT CANNOT BE SUED WHILE IN OFFICE. THAT ISSUE, OF PRESIDENTIAL IMMUNITY FROM CIVIL LAWSUITS INVOLVING PAST CONDUCT, IS BEING HEARD BY THE SUPREME COURT TODAY [MONDAY]. AND SEVERAL PAPERS ARE COMMENTING ON THE CASE, INCLUDING THE NEW YORK TIMES, WHICH SAYS FLATLY, THAT "NO CITIZEN, NOT EVEN A SITTING PRESIDENT - - IS ABOVE THE LAW."

    VOICE: "THAT BEDROCK CONSTITUTIONAL PRINCIPLE WILL BE AT THE CENTER OF ARGUMENTS MADE BEFORE THE SUPREME COURT [TODAY] AS IT CONSIDERS THE CASE ..... FROM THE BEGINNING, MR. CLINTON'S DEFENDERS HAVE ATTACKED MS. JONES'S VERACITY AND SUGGESTED A POLITICAL MOTIVATION FOR HER SUIT. ..... BUT THE MERITS OF THE CASE, WHICH HAVE YET TO BE TESTED IN ANY TRIAL PROCEEDING, ARE IRRELEVANT TO THE SUPREME COURT. THE QUESTION BEFORE THE COURT CONCERNS THE PROPER SCOPE OF PRESIDENTIAL IMMUNITY FROM CIVIL LAWSUITS AND WHETHER ALL PROCEEDINGS IN THE JONES CASE SHOULD BE DELAYED UNTIL MR. CLINTON LEAVES OFFICE. .... NO ONE DENIES THAT THE PRESIDENT'S JOB IS DEMANDING. BUT, AS THE APPELLATE OPINION EMPHASIZED, A TRIAL JUDGE SENSITIVE TO THOSE DEMANDS SHOULD BE ABLE TO SCHEDULE PROCEEDINGS WITHOUT UNDULY INTRUDING ON PRESSING WHITE HOUSE DUTIES."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: THE WASHINGTON POST ALSO FEELS THAT THE CASE, WITH CONSIDERATION FOR THE PRESIDENT'S SCHEDULE, SHOULD GO FORWARD, NOTING:

    VOICE: "THIS CASE IN PARTICULAR IS AN UNCOMPLICATED DISPUTE THAT SHOULD NOT INVOLVE THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE IN DRAWN-OUT DEPOSITIONS OR MUCH TIME IN COURT. IT'S A SIMPLE QUESTION OF BELIEVING HER OR BELIEVING HIM, NOT AN ANTITRUST MATTER THAT COULD GO ON FOR YEARS. CONVERSELY, ESTABLISHING A PRECEDENT PROTECTING ALL PRESIDENTS FROM LAWSUITS WHILE IN OFFICE WOULD BE UNFAIR TO PLAINTIFFS. ......THE PRESIDENT DESERVES RESPECT AND COOPERATION ON SCHEDULING FROM THE COURTS. BUT LIKE EVERY OTHER CITIZEN, HE ISN'T ENTITLED TO A FOUR-YEAR FREE PASS."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: TAKING THE OPPOSITE VIEW IS USA TODAY, WHICH SAYS IN PART:

    VOICE: "PAULA JONES' LAWSUIT AGAINST PRESIDENT CLINTON ABSOLUTELY SHOULD PROCEED. UNTIL [MR.] CLINTON LEAVES OFFICE, HOWEVER, IT ABSOLUTELY SHOULD BE DEFERRED. EVEN A SPLIT-THE-DIFFERENCE RULING FROM THE U-S SUPREME COURT ..... WILL DO MUCH HARM TO THE PRESIDENCY WITHOUT SATISFYING ANY URGENT LEGAL NEED. ..... PAULA JONES DESERVES HER DAY IN COURT, BUT AFTER WAITING SO LONG, WHAT'S THE RUSH NOW?"

    [OPT]

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, THE WASHINGTON TIMES SAYS THAT:

    VOICE: "... LEGAL EXPERTS AGREE THAT IT IS UNLIKELY THE COURT WILL DECLARE MR. CLINTON ABOVE THE LAW SIMPLY BY VIRTUE OF HIS ELECTED OFFICE. SO, SOMETIME IN THE NEXT FOUR YEARS, WE MAY WELL FACE THE PROSPECT OF SWORN TESTIMONY FROM THE PRESIDENT ABOUT HIS SEXUAL HABITS AND HIS GENITALIA."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: TURNING TO INTERNATIONAL TOPICS, THE NEW YORK TIMES IS COMMENTING ON THE RECENT ELECTIONS IN SINGAPORE, WHICH IT CALLS A "STEAMROLLER."

    VOICE: "[BEGIN OPT] WHEN SINGAPORE'S GOVERNING PARTY CRUSHED THE OPPOSITION IN PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS EARLIER THIS MONTH, PRIME MINISTER BOH CHOK TONG SAID THAT BY SUPPORTING THE GOVERNMENT, THE PEOPLE HAD REJECTED THE WESTERN-STYLE FREEDOMS AND DEMOCRACY THE OPPOSITION CHAMPIONED. [END OPT] WITHOUT FREE DEBATE ON PUBLIC ISSUES, TOLERANCE FOR DISSENT, INDEPENDENT COURTS AND OTHER FREEDOMS, HOWEVER, NEITHER MR. BOH NOR ANYONE ELSE CAN REALLY KNOW WHAT SINGAPORE'S CITIZENS WANT. .... IF SINGAPORE'S RULERS ARE SO PROUD OF WHAT THEY HAVE DONE, LET THEM TEST THEIR APPROVAL BY PERMITTING VIGOROUS PUBLIC DEBATE AND UNFETTERED ELECTIONS."

    TEXT: TODAY'S SUN IN BALTIMORE IS EXPRESSING NEW CONCERNS ABOUT THE THREAT TO DEMOCRACY WHEN CHINA TAKES CONTROL OF HONG KONG JULY FIRST.

    VOICE: "IT IS SADLY TRUE THAT CHINA, PARANOID ABOUT DISSENT, IS CHILLING HONG KONG'S ATMOSPHERE OF FREE SPEECH. THE REGIME OF ANCIENTS IN BEIJING FAVORS CAPITALISM UNDER A COMMUNIST MONOPOLY OF POLITICAL POWER. THE COMMUNIST PARTY, BANNED UNTIL NOW IN HONG KONG, WILL SOON BE ITS SOLE PARTY. CHINA DOES NOT WANT HONG KONG TO BECOME A SANCTUARY FOR CHINESE DISSENT."

    TEXT: [BEGIN OPT] TURNING, ONCE AGAIN, TO DOMESTIC AFFAIRS, IN ANOTHER EDITORIAL THE SUN SUGGESTS THAT POLITICAL POWER NORMALLY STRONGEST IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES IS SHIFTING TOWARD THE SENATE.

    VOICE: "WITH NEWT GINGRICH PRECARIOUSLY PERCHED IN THE HOUSE SPEAKER'S CHAIR, AND HIS FUTURE BY NO MEANS SECURE, THE MOST POWERFUL FIGURE ON CAPITOL HILL THIS YEAR IS SENATE MAJORITY LEADER TRENT LOTT. THE MISSISSIPPI REPUBLICAN, SUAVE BUT TOUGH, HAS MADE IT CLEAR HOUSE REPUBLICANS WILL NO LONGER BE SETTING THE LEGISLATIVE AGENDA AS THEY DID IN 1995 AND 1996. MUCH OF THE INITIATIVE IS GOING TO SHIFT TO THE SENATE. ..... AFTER THE BRASH EXCESS OF THE GINGRICH HEYDAY YEARS, THAT WILL BE WELCOME. [END OPT]"

    TEXT: AND LASTLY, FROM NEWSDAY ON LONG ISLAND, THIS COMMENT ABOUT THE CONTINUING CONTROVERSY REGARDING JEWISH BANK ACCOUNTS HELD DURING WORLD WAR TWO IN SWISS BANKS, AND NEVER RETURNED TO THE HOLDERS OF THEIR HEIRS.

    VOICE: "TOO LITTLE, TOO GRUDGING. AT BEST, THAT'S WHAT CAN BE SAID ABOUT THE SWISS GOVERNMENT'S OFFER TO COMPENSATE HOLOCAUST VICTIMS AND THEIR DESCENDANTS WHOSE ASSETS WERE LOST DURING WORLD WAR TWO. [BEGIN OPT] ..... THE QUESTION OF WHETHER SWISS BANKS AND THE SWISS GOVERNMENT PROFITED FROM HANDLING NAZI GOLD AND JEWISH BANK ACCOUNTS THAT WERE LEFT DORMANT AFTER THEIR OWNERS DIED BY NAZI HANDS REMAINS OPEN. [END OPT] .... LAST WEEK SWISS ECONOMICS MINISTER JEAN-PASCAL DELAMURAZ CALLED JEWISH DEMANDS FOR COMPENSATION 'EXTORTION AND BLACKMAIL,' INFLAMING AN ALREADY HOT ISSUE. SWITZERLAND'S SUBSEQUENT OFFER TO SET UP A HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL FUND USING UNCLAIMED DEPOSITS WAS BOTH SELF-SERVING AND GROSSLY INSUFFICIENT."

    TEXT: AND WITH THAT COMMENT, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF A FEW OF THE EDITORIALS TO BE FOUND IN MONDAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/GE
    13-Jan-97 11:30 AM EST (1630 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] BULGARIA PROTESTS (Q&A) BY KATYA KOSEVA (SOFIA)

    DATE=1/13/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-208612
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: BULGARIA'S RULING SOCIALIST PARTY IS INDICATING A READINESS TO CONSIDER HOLDING NEW ELECTIONS AS MASS PROTESTS CONTINUE IN THE CAPITAL, SOFIA. LEADERS OF THE SOCIALIST PARTY, THE FORMER COMMUNISTS, SAID THEY WOULD AGREE IN PRINCIPLE TO EARLY ELECTIONS. BUT, THEY DEMANDED THAT THEY BE ALLOWED TO HELP WRITE AN ECONOMIC STABILIZATION PROGRAM FOR THE COUNTRY. THAT STATEMENT CAME AS THOUSANDS OF PROTESTERS DEMONSTRATED OUTSIDE THE MAIN CATHEDRAL IN SOFIA. KATYA KOSEVA WAS AT THOSE DEMONSTRATIONS AND SPOKE WITH VOA'S PAT BODNER ABOUT THE MOOD OF THE PROTESTORS AS WELL AS THE BACKGROUND TO THE CURRENT CRISIS.

    (BODNER) WHAT WAS THE SITUATION WITH TODAY'S DEMONSTRATIONS AND WHAT WAS THE TONE OF THOSE DEMONSTRATIONS?

    (KOSEVA) A LARGE GROUP OF STUDENTS WITH PLACARDS AND NATIONAL BANNERS HEADED FOR WHAT IS A VERY POPULAR PLACE FOR DEMONSTRATIONS IN SOFIA -- THE ALEXANDER NEVSKY SQUARE WITH THE HUGE CATHEDRAL. THE DEMONSTRATIONS WERE VERY PEACEFUL; I WOULD SAY EVEN FESTIVE. THE PROTESTERS WERE SINGING AND SHOUTING SLOGANS LIKE -- "WE'LL DO THIS EVERY DAY UNTIL VICTORY DAY."

    (BODNER) ARE YOU SEEING ANY SIMILARITIES TO THE DEMONSTRATIONS AND THE DEMANDS IN SERBIA?

    (KOSEVA) WELL, THE TONE AND ATMOSPHERE ARE THE SAME, BUT THE DEMANDS ARE QUITE DIFFERENT. AS YOU KNOW, SERBIAN STUDENTS AND PEOPLE ARE PROTESTING AGAINST THE FACT THAT THE VOTE WAS CHANGED (EDS: OPPOSITION ELECTION VICTORIES WERE ANNULED). THEY ARE DEMANDING FREEDOM OF THE PRESS AND DEMOCRACY. AND HERE (EDS: IN BLUGARIA) PEOPLE ARE DEMANDING SURVIVAL. IT'S SUCH A DISASTEROUS ECONOMIC SITUATION HERE WITH AN AVERAGE OF 30 DOLALRS SALARY PER MONTH. SO, HERE THOSE MASS DEMONSTRATIONS ARE DEMONSTRATIONS FOR PURE SURVIVAL AND FOR BRINGING BACK SOME HUMAN DIGNITY. WE DO NOT REMEMBER SUCH A POOR ECONOMIC SITUATION ON RECORD.

    (BODNER) TO JUST PUT IT INTO SOME PERSPECTIVE, WE ARE READING REPORTS THAT SAY THE WAGES (IN BULGARIA) HAVE PLUMMETTED -- AS YOU POINTED OUT -- IN THE LAST TWO MONTHS TO LOWER SALARIES THAN THOSE IN ALBANIA, WHICH IS THE POOREST COUNTRY IN EUROPE.

    (KOSEVA) EXACTLY. EXACTLY. AND IT ALL HAPPENED VERY QUICKLY AFTER OCTOBER. WE NOW HAVE ABOUT 310 PERCENT INFLATION AND OUR NATIONAL CURRENCY IS FALLING EVERY DAY IN VALUE AND YOU KNOW 95 PERCENT OF THE PEOPLE ARE LIVING BELOW THE LINE OF POVERTY.

    (BODNER) SO, OPPOSITION FORCES HAVE CALLED ON THE SOCIALIST PARTY -- THE FORMER COMMUNISTS -- TO HOLD EARLY ELECTIONS AND OSTENSIBLY GIVE UP POWER. TO WHAT END?

    (KOSEVA) WELL, THE END IS ECONOMIC SURVIVAL. FIRST, THE STRUCTURAL REFORMS WHICH SHOULD HAVE SHAPED THE TRANSITION OVER THE SEVEN YEARS AFTER 1989 NEVER HAPPENED. IT WAS HALF REFORMS AND IT ONLY BROUGHT LOWERING OF LIVING STANDARDS AND PAIN IN SOCIETY. PEOPLE WERE LOSING THEIR JOBS AND THERE WAS NOTHING LIKE ECONOMIC GROWTH. THE OPPOSITION WANTS THOSE ELECTIONS SO THAT A SECOND SOCIALIST GOVERNMENT WILL NOT BE FORMED. REMEMBER, THE SOCIALIST GOVERNMENT RESIGNED ON CHRISTMAS EVE (12/24). THE BULGARIAN CONSTITUTION STIPULATES THAT WHEN THERE IS A GOVERNMENT CRISIS, SUCH AS WE HAVE NOW, THE PRESIDENT SHOULD GIVE A MANDATE FOR ANOTHER GOVERNMENT TO THE PARTY WHICH HAS THE PARLIAMENTARY MAJORITY. THAT WOULD AGAIN BE THE SOCIALIST PARTY. AND THAT IS WHY THE OPPOSITION WANTS THE SOCIALIST PARTY TO WITHDRAW, WANTS PARLIAMENT DISSOLVED AND NEW ELECTIONS HELD.

    (BODNER) DESPITE THE AGREEMENT ON THE PART OF (SOCIALIST PARTY LEADER) GEORGI PARVANOV TO HOLD TALKS AS EARLY AS TODAY, OUR REPORTS ARE INDICATING THAT HE CAUTIONED AGAINST HOPES FOR NEW ELECTIONS IMMEDIATELY. WHAT MIGHT HAPPEN IF THOSE CALLS ARE NOT HEEDED?

    (KOSEVA) WELL, FROM ALL THE DISCUSSIONS SINCE YESTERDAY. THERE WAS BIG DISCUSSION ON TELEVION FOR THREE HOURS -- THE OPPOSITION SAID THAT IMMEDIATE ELECTIONS ARE NOT THE EXACT TERM. THEY SAID THEY WOULD TALK TO THE SOCIALIST PARTY TO DISCUSS THINGS ONLY IF THE SOCIALISTS ARE READY TO FIX A DATE FOR NEW ELECTIONS. AND NO ONE SAYS THEY WILL TAKE IN TWO WEEKS OR ONE MONTH. THE MOST PLAUSIBLE DATE, AS PRESIDENT-ELECT PETAR STOYANOV SAID, IS SOMEWHERE IN EARLY JUNE. BUT GEORGI PARVANOV SAID HE WANTS THE MANDATE FOR A SECOND GOVERNMENT; HE WANTS TO INTRODUCE A CURRENCY BOARD AND THEN GO FOR PRELIMINARY ELECTIONS. SO, HERE IS THE DISCREPANCY -- THE OPPOSITION DOES NOT WANT A SECOND SOCIALIST GOVERNMENT AND THE SOCIALIST PARTY WANTS A SECOND SOCIALIST GOVERNMENT AND THEN PRELIMINARY ELECTIONS. END TEXT
    NEB/KK/SP/CF
    13-Jan-97 2:55 PM EST (1955 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] CYPRUS TALKS (L-O) CORRECT BY CHRIS DRAKE (NICOSIA)

    DATE=1/13/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-208616
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    ///// CORRECTS CASEY TO CAREY IN INTRO OF CR2-208601. /////

    INTRO: U-S DIPLOMAT CAREY CAVANAUGH SAYS LEADERS OF THE GREEK AND TURKISH COMMUNITIES ON CYPRUS HAVE AGREED TO RESUME NEGOTIATIONS, AND HE SAYS HE BELIEVES THERE IS NO LONGER A DANGER OF IMMINENT MILITARY CONFLICT. CHRIS DRAKE IN NICOSIA ALSO REPORTS THE CYPRUS GOVERNMENT SAYS A MISSILE DEFENSE SYSTEM IT IS BUYING FROM RUSSIA WILL NOT BE INSTALLED FOR 16 MONTHS. BUT TURKISH CYPRIOTS STILL ARE NOT HAPPY.

    TEXT: WHILE MR. CAVANAUGH SAYS HE IS CONFIDENT THERE IS NO LONGER A CRISIS HERE, THE CYPRIOT TURKISH LEADER, RAUF DENKTASH, DISAGREES.

    MR. DENKTASH SAID HE WELCOMES CONFIRMATION THE AIR DEFENSE SYSTEM IS NOT SCHEDULED TO ARRIVE FOR 16 MONTHS. BUT HE CALLED THIS A "STOP-GAP MEASURE" AND SAID THE CRISIS WILL REMAIN UNTIL PLANS TO INSTALL THE MISSILE SYSTEM ARE DROPPED ALTOGETHER.

    DIPLOMATS SAY THE DIFFERENCE OF OPINION IS BASED ON THE TIME FACTOR, WITH MR. CAVANAUGH HAPPY TO HAVE REDUCED TENSION IN CYPRUS, BUT MR. DENKTASH ANXIOUS TO ECHO TURKEY'S VIEW THAT THE LONG-TERM PROBLEM STILL EXISTS.

    THEY SAY CYPRIOT PRESIDENT GLAFCOS CLERIDES IS GIVING THE INTERNATIONAL POWERS A 16-MONTH DEADLINE FOR SECURING AN OVERALL SETTLEMENT BETWEEN THE TWO COMMUNITIES.

    MR. CAVANAUGH'S ANNOUNCEMENT BOTH SIDES HAVE AGREED TO RETURN TO THE NEGOTIATING TABLE MEANS THERE IS NOW A GENUINE OPPORTUNITY TO MAKE PROGRESS ON KEEPING THE TENSION LOW.

    AMONG THE PRIORITIES FOR DISCUSSION IS A REDUCTION OF EACH SIDE'S FORCES ALONG THE U-N-PATROLLED BUFFER ZONE WHICH RUNS THE LENGTH OF THE ISLAND AND SEPARATES THE COMMUNITIES. BECAUSE OPPOSING TROOPS ARE SO CLOSE TO EACH OTHER, THE UNITED NATIONS SAYS A REDUCTION IS ESSENTIAL TO AVOID INTERCOMMUNAL VIOLENCE OF THE SORT WHICH FLARED LAST SUMMER.

    IT IS NOT CLEAR YET JUST HOW QUICKLY NEGOTIATIONS WILL RESUME AND WHAT PART THE UNITED STATES WILL PLAY. BUT OFFICIALS SAY AFTER THE EVENTS OF THE PAST WEEK, IT IS ASSUMED THE STATE DEPARTMENT WILL BE ANXIOUS TO DEMONSTRATE ITS SERIOUSNESS ABOUT PLAYING A LEADING ROLE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/CD/JWH/RAE
    13-Jan-97 3:24 PM EST (2024 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] EURO STOCKS (S) BY JACK HUIZENGA (LONDON)

    DATE=1/13/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-208607
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SHARE PRICES ROSE SHARPLY MONDAY ON WEST EUROPEAN EXCHANGES. V-O-A'S JACK HUIZENGA HAS THE CLOSING MARKET REPORT FROM LONDON.

    TEXT: STOCK PRICES WERE HIGHER ON ALL MAJOR EUROPEAN EXCHANGES, WITH SEVERAL MARKETS CLOSING AT RECORD HIGHS.

    ON THE PARIS MARKET, THE CAC-40 INDEX CLOSED UP ALMOST 34-POINTS, ABOUT ONE-AND-SIX-TENTHS PERCENT, TO END THE DAY AT JUST OVER 23-HUNDRED-61 -- A RECORD HIGH CLOSE. MARKETS IN BELGIUM, SPAIN, SWEDEN, AND SWITZERLAND ALSO ENDED THE DAY AT RECORD HIGHS.

    PRICES ALSO ROSE SHARPLY IN FRANKFURT. THE DAX-30 INDEX CLOSED UP ALMOST 22-POINTS, ABOUT SEVENTH-TENTHS PERCENT, AND CONTINUED TO RISE IN LATER COMPUTERIZED TRADING. IN LONDON, THE FOOTSIE-100 INDEX ROSE ALMOST 51-POINTS, ABOUT ONE-AND-TWO-TENTHS PERCENT, TO CLOSE AT 41-HUNDRED-SEVEN -- JUST BELOW THE RECORD HIGH SET DECEMBER 31ST.

    ON THE LONDON CURRENCY MARKET, THE VALUE OF THE U-S DOLLAR WAS HIGHER AGAINST THE JAPANESE YEN, THE GERMAN MARK, AND THE BRITISH POUND.
    NEB/JWH/RAE
    13-Jan-97 1:53 PM EST (1853 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] JOULWAN / BOSNIA (S-ONLY) BY DAVID GOLLUST (PENTAGON)

    DATE=1/13/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-208603
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE NATO MILITARY COMMANDER -- U-S ARMY GENERAL GEORGE JOULWAN -- SAYS HE IS UNHAPPY WITH THE PACE OF MINE-CLEARING IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. NEARLY TWO MILLION MINES REMAIN STREWN ACROSS THE BOSNIA COUNTRYSIDE IN THE WAKE OF NEARLY FOUR YEARS OF CIVIL WAR. VOA'S DAVID GOLLUST HAS DETAILS FROM THE PENTAGON.

    TEXT: THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORDS LEFT THE TASK OF MINE-CLEARANCE TO THE BOSNIAN FACTIONS THEMSELVES. AND GENERAL JOULWAN SAYS THE SLOW PACE OF THAT PROCESS IS ONE HIS MAJOR CONCERNS AS NATO BEGINS A NEW PHASE OF PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS IN BOSNIA.

    IN A TALK WITH REPORTERS HERE, THE NATO MILITARY CHIEF SAID THE MINE PROBLEM COULD PLAGUE BOSNIA FOR GENERATIONS TO COME. U-S MILITARY OFFICIALS SAY THERE ARE AN ESTIMATED SEVEN THOUSAND MINEFIELDS IN BOSNIA. AND WHILE THERE HAVE ONLY BEEN A HANDFUL OF MINE CASUALTIES AMONG NATO PEACEKEEPERS, GENERAL JOULWAN SAID BOSNIAN CIVILIANS ARE BEING MAIMED AND KILLED BY THE DEVICES EVERY WEEK.

    GENERAL JOULWAN ALSO EXPRESSED CONCERN ABOUT THE SIZE AND WEAPONRY OF POLICE FORCES IN BOSNIA RUN BY THE MUSLIM, CROAT AND SERB FACTIONS. THOUGH NATO PEACEKEEPERS HAVE LARGELY DISARMED THEIR MILITARY FORCES, IT IS FEARED THAT THE POLICE HAVE BEEN STOCKPILING WEAPONS -- INCLUDING IN SOME CASES RECOVERED LANDMINES.

    GENERAL JOULWAN -- WHO IS DUE TO RETIRE IN A FEW MONTHS -- CALLED FOR AN INCREASED ROLE, INCLUDING SANCTION POWERS, FOR THE 16-HUNDRED MEMBER U-N INTERNATIONAL POLICE FORCE WHICH IS MONITORING THE LOCAL POLICE ELEMENTS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DAG/CF
    13-Jan-97 1:25 PM EST (1825 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] RUSSIA / NATO (L) BY PETER HEINLEIN (MOSCOW)

    DATE=1/13/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-208595
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: RUSSIAN PRESIDENT BORIS YELTSIN HAS WRITTEN TO THE PRESIDENT OF NEIGHBORING BELARUS, SUGGESTING A REFERENDUM ON UNIFICATION. V-O-A'S PETER HEINLEIN IN MOSCOW REPORTS THE PROPOSAL IS PART OF A DIPLOMATIC OFFENSIVE AGAINST NATO'S PLANS TO EXPAND EASTWARD TOWARD RUSSIA'S BORDER.

    TEXT: KREMLIN SPOKESMAN SERGEI YASTRZHEMBSKY TOLD REPORTERS (MONDAY) MR. YELTSIN RAISED THE MERGER QUESTION IN A LETTER TO BELARUS PRESIDENT ALEXANDER LUKASHENKO. MR. YASTRZHEMBSKY SAID THE RUSSIAN LEADER OUTLINED A PLAN FOR UNIFICATION, THE FINAL STEP OF WHICH COULD BE A REFERENDUM IN BOTH COUNTRIES.

    /// YASTRZHEMBSKY ACT, FADE UNDER ///

    THE KREMLIN SPOKESMAN SAID MR. YELTSIN'S PROPOSAL CALLED FOR ALL DETAILS TO BE ARRANGED IN ADVANCE, SO IF THE REFERENDUM IS APPROVED, A SINGLE GOVERNMENT COULD BEGIN FUNCTIONING IMMEDIATELY.

    FOR BELARUS AND ITS AUTHORITARIAN LEADER, THE ADVANTAGES OF UNIFICATION ARE OBVIOUS. THE COUNTRY'S STRUGGLING ECONOMY WOULD GET AN IMMEDIATE BOOST, AND A MERGER WOULD PROVIDE MR. LUKASHENKO A MUCH LARGER STAGE FOR HIS POLITICAL AMBITIONS. HE REACTED ENTHUSIASTICALLY MONDAY TO MR. YELTSIN'S SUGGESTION.

    FOR RUSSIA, THE PROPOSED UNION WOULD AT BEST BE A MIXED BLESSING. MOSCOW CAN ILL-AFFORD TO TAKE ON ADDITIONAL FINANCIAL BURDEN AT A TIME WHEN ITS OWN ECONOMY IS IN PAINFUL TRANSITION.

    BUT THE POLITICAL BENEFITS MAY OUTWEIGH THE ECONOMIC COSTS AT A TIME WHEN RUSSIA IS SEARCHING FOR WAYS TO RESPOND TO THE PLANNED EASTWARD EXPANSION OF NATO. WITH THAT IN MIND, SENIOR KREMLIN OFFICIAL SERGEI SHAKRAI WAS QUOTED MONDAY AS SAYING PRESIDENT YELTSIN SHOULD MAKE UNIFICATION HIS PRIMARY GOAL FOR THE YEAR.

    POLITICAL ANALYST VICTOR KREMENYUK, OF MOSCOW'S U-S-A/CANADA INSTITUTE, SAYS THE UNIFICATION ISSUE IS ONE OF A SERIES OF KREMLIN MOVES DESIGNED TO MAKE NATO RECONSIDER ITS EXPANSION PLANS. MR. KREMENYUK SAYS WESTERN LEADERS APPEAR TO BE IGNORING RUSSIA'S CONCERNS ABOUT WHAT IS STILL A HIGHLY-EMOTIONAL ISSUE.

    /// KREMENYUK ACT ///

    POLITICALLY, OF COURSE, IT IS A SLAP IN THE FACE, AND I DO NOT THINK YELTSIN MAY AFFORD TO IGNORE IT. BECAUSE THE RUSSIANS DO NOT LIKE THE WHOLE IDEA. BECAUSE, THIS IS A NEW SPLIT OF EUROPE. EVERYONE UNDERSTANDS THAT EUROPE BECOMES NATO AND NON-NATO, TWO EUROPES. AND RUSSIA IS BEING LEFT OUTSIDE OF THE WHOLE STRUCTURE.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. KREMENYUK SAYS AS THE ATLANTIC ALLIANCE MOVES TOWARD INVITING NEW MEMBERS NEXT JULY, RUSSIA PLANS A SERIES OF STRONGER RETALIATORY MOVES. HE SAID THE BEST IS YET TO COME.

    THE ANTI-NATO RHETORIC FROM THE KREMLIN IS ALREADY BECOMING INCREASINGLY BITTER. PRESIDENT YELTSIN'S FINAL MEETING BEFORE ENTERING THE HOSPITAL LAST WEEK WAS DEVOTED TO DEVISING STRATEGY FOR OPPOSING THE ALLIANCE'S EXPANSION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PFH/JWH/RAE
    13-Jan-97 12:13 PM EST (1713 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] TURKEY / EUROPE BY KYLE KING (BONN)

    DATE=1/13/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-35429
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: DIPLOMATS IN EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES SAY THEY ARE CONCERNED THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT HAS BECOME SO FRUSTRATED WITH ITS ALLIES IN WESTERN EUROPE, IT IS TURNING TOWARD ITS ISLAMIC NEIGHBORS TO THE EAST. AS KYLE KING REPORTS FROM GERMANY, THE TREND COMES AMID GROWING TENSIONS WITH GREECE OVER THE DIVIDED ISLAND OF CYPRUS, AND COULD THREATEN COOPERATION ON A NUMBER OF KEY DIPLOMATIC INITIATIVES.

    TEXT: GERMAN FOREIGN MINISTER KLAUS KINKEL RECENTLY SUMMED UP THE FEELING AMONG MANY EUROPEAN DIPLOMATS WHEN HE SAID HE UNDERSTANDS WHY TURKEY HAS INCREASINGLY TURNED AWAY FROM ITS WESTERN EUROPEAN ALLIES.

    MR. KINKEL SAID TURKEY FEELS IT HAS BEEN TREATED BADLY BY EUROPE.

    THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT, WHICH HAS LONG SOUGHT MEMBERSHIP IN THE 15-NATION EUROPEAN UNION, HAS MADE LITTLE PROGRESS TOWARD THAT GOAL.

    A CUSTOMS UNION SIGNED ONE-YEAR AGO WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION HAS ALSO PRODUCED NO TANGIBLE BENEFITS FOR TURKEY, WHICH SUFFERS FROM A HOST OF PROBLEMS, INCLUDING AN INFLATION RATE OF ABOUT 80-PERCENT AND A SIMMERING DISPUTE WITH ITS KURDISH POPULATION.

    A SENIOR ANALYST AT THE INSTITUTE FOR TURKISH STUDIES IN GERMANY, SEDES KORAY, SAYS MANY PEOPLE IN TURKEY FEEL THE WEST HAS LET THEM DOWN.

    /// KORAY ACT ///

    THERE IS A GENERAL FEELING IN TURKEY THAT TURKEY HAS BEEN EXCLUDED FROM THE WEST AND FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION, AND PEOPLE FEEL FRUSTRATED ABOUT THIS.

    /// END ACT ///

    SOME ANALYSTS SAY TURKISH FRUSTRATIONS WITH EUROPE ARE STEERING THE COUNTRY TOWARD CLOSER RELATIONS WITH ITS ISLAMIC NEIGHBORS, INCLUDING IRAN.

    MS. KORAY SAYS SHE DOES NOT BELIEVE THAT IS THE ONLY FACTOR DRIVING TURKEY AWAY FROM EUROPE. BUT SHE SAYS THERE HAS BEEN A DISTINCT SHIFT IN TURKEY'S FOREIGN POLICY.

    /// KORAY ACT TWO ///

    WHAT TURKEY IS BASICALLY DOING RIGHT NOW IS LOOKING FOR NEW OPTIONS IN ITS FOREIGN POLICY, WHICH I THINK IS CERTAINLY LEGITIMATE. WE SEE TURKEY HAS BEEN PLAYING A MORE ACTIVE ROLE IN ITS REGION IN THE LAST COUPLE OF YEARS AND THE LATEST MOVES BY PRIME MINISTER NECMETTIN ERBAKAN'S GOVERNMENT TO INCREASE TIES WITH ISLAMIC COUNTRIES CAN BE SEEN AS AN EXTENSION OF THAT POLICY AND OF THE SEARCH FOR NEW FOREIGN POLICY OPTIONS.

    /// END ACT ///

    BUT THAT INCREASING EASTWARD FOCUS CONCERNS SOME DIPLOMATS BECAUSE TURKEY IS A MEMBER OF NATO AND BORDERS THE VOLATILE REGIONS OF THE CAUCASUS AND THE MIDDLE EAST.

    DIPLOMATS SAY THEY ARE ALSO CONCERNED ABOUT THE RECENT INCREASE IN TENSIONS OVER THE DIVIDED ISLAND OF CYPRUS. TURKEY, WHICH HAS OCCUPIED THE NORTHERN ONE-THIRD OF THE DISPUTED ISLAND SINCE 1974, HAS REACTED ANGRILY TO WORD GREEK CYPRIOTS PLAN TO BUY RUSSIAN ANTI-AIRCRAFT MISSILES.

    ANALYSTS SAY TURKISH THREATS TO USE MILITARY FORCE TO STOP THE MOVE MAY BE PARTLY FUELED BY THE GOVERNMENT'S FRUSTRATION WITH THE WEST.

    ALTHOUGH TURKEY BLAMES GREECE FOR BLOCKING ITS PROGRESS TOWARD JOINING THE EUROPEAN UNION AND FOR FUELING TENSIONS ON CYPRUS, ANALYSTS SAY OFFICIALS ARE DISAPPOINTED WESTERN EUROPEAN LEADERS HAVE NOT DONE MORE TO HELP.

    ANALYSTS LIKE MS. KORAY SAY THEY DO NOT EXPECT TURKEY TO TAKE A DRAMATIC TURN AWAY FROM THE WEST. BUT SHE SAYS THERE IS A DANGER THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT'S HARD LINE TOWARD CYPRUS COULD SPIN OUT OF CONTROL. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/JWH/RAE
    13-Jan-97 3:03 PM EST (2003 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] TURKEY LOOKS EAST BY ED WARNER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=1/13/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-35423
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: WESTERNERS ARE CONCERNED ABOUT THE GROWING TENSION BETWEEN GREECE AND TURKEY ABOUT CYPRUS. TURKEY HAS THREATENED TO DESTROY SURFACE TO AIR MISSILES SCHEDULED TO BE DEPLOYED BY THE GREEK CYPRIOTS. BUT THERE IS STILL WIDER CONCERN ABOUT RECENT TENDENCIES IN THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT, NOW LED BY AN ISLAMIST WHO SAYS HIS NATION SHOULD LOOK EAST MORE THAN WEST.

    TEXT: "WE FEEL THE WORLD HAS TO BE RESHAPED," SAYS NECMETTIN ERBAKAN, PRIME MINISTER OF TURKEY. AND OBSERVERS SAY THAT IS WHAT HE IS TRYING TO DO, SLOWLY TO BE SURE, BUT WITH SOME SUCCESS.

    HE CANNOT MOVE TOO FAST IN AN ISLAMIST DIRECTION BECAUSE OF CERTAIN CONSTRAINTS. HE SHARES A COALITION GOVERNMENT WITH A SECULAR CONSERVATIVE PARTY. ALTHOUGH HIS REFAH (WELFARE) PARTY WON THE LARGEST VOTE IN THE LAST ELECTION, IT WAS ONLY 21 PER CENT.

    THE ARMY ALSO STANDS IN HIS WAY. DETERMINED TO MAINTAIN THE STATUS QUO, IT TOLERATES ONLY MINOR ADJUSTMENTS IN THE SECULAR STATE ESTABLISHED BY KEMAL ATATURK AFTER WORLD WAR ONE. THE ARMY IS SAID TO BE ESPECIALLY DISTURBED BY MR. ERBAKAN'S GROWING TIES WITH FUNDAMENTALIST IRAN.

    ASSAD HOMAYOUN, AN IRANIAN OPPOSITION LEADER IN THE UNITED STATES, SAYS IRAN WOULD LIKE TO USE TURKEY TO BREAK OUT OF ITS ISOLATION AND ADVANCE ITS FUNDAMENTALISM. BUT THE TURKISH ARMY REMAINS AN OBSTACLE TO MR. ERBAKAN'S PLANS:

    // HOMAYOUN ACTUALITY //

    HE IS IN FAVOR OF MILITARY COOPERATION BETWEEN IRAN AND TURKEY. BUT THE MILITARY CANNOT TOLERATE THIS. THERE IS A RED LINE (BARRIER) THAT HE CANNOT PASS. THE RED LINE IS THE TRADITION OF ATATURK, NATO AND THE ALLIANCE BETWEEN ISRAEL AND TURKEY. HE CANNOT CHANGE THAT. IF HE GOES AGAINST THAT, I THINK THEY WILL REMOVE HIM FROM POWER. THE ARMY DID SUCH A THING IN 1961, A COUP D'ETAT, AND IN '71 AND IN '80. IF IT IS NECESSARY, THEY WILL DO THE SAME THING.

    // END ACT //

    HENRI BARKEY, PROFESSOR OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AT LEHIGH UNIVERSITY, AGREES THE TURKISH MILITARY CONSTITUTES A BAR TO MR. EBAKAN'S AMBITION:

    // BARKEY ACTUALITY //

    HOWEVER, THE BAR IS QUITE HIGH. HE HAS A LOT OF LEEWAY BETWEEN WHERE TURKISH FOREIGN POLICY IS NOW AND WHERE THE RED LINE OR BAR HAS BEEN ESTABLISHED BY THE MILITARY. IN FACT, WHAT WE SEE NOW IS PRECISELY HIS ATTEMPT AT TRYING TO SLOWLY CHANGE TURKISH FOREIGN POLICY WITHOUT NECESSARILY CHALLENGING THOSE BARS I MENTIONED.

    // END ACT //

    PROFESSOR BARKEY SAYS PARLIAMENT RARELY QUESTIONS THE MILITARY BUDGET, BUT REFAH MADE AN ATTEMPT AFTER THE ARMY DISMISSED 58 OFFICERS ACCUSED OF FUNDAMENTALIST ACTIVITY:

    // BARKEY ACTUALITY //

    THEY TOOK AWAY APPROXIMATELY 450 MILLION DOLLARS FROM THE MILITARY BUDGET AND GAVE IT TO THE PRIME MINISTER TO BE USED AT HIS OWN DISCRETION. IN FACT, THE MILITARY WILL GET BACK THAT MONEY. THE PRIME MINISTER WILL NOT BE ABLE TO KEEP IT. BUT THIS WAS A SHOT ACROSS THE BOW OF THE MILITARY AND TO WARN THEM, "LOOK, WE HAVE CONSTITUTIONAL MEANS BY WHICH WE CAN CONTROL AND WE CAN INFLUENCE YOUR BEHAVIOUR. SO YOU HAVE TO DO SOME GIVE AND TAKE WITH US."

    // END ACT //

    PROFESSOR BARKEY SAYS THE ARMY HAS SHOWN FIGHTING ABILITY BUT LITTLE STRATEGIC VISION IN COMBATTING THE KURDISH INSURGENCY IN THE SOUTHEAST.

    PROFESSOR BARKEY SAYS THE PRIME MINISTER HAS STUMBLED BUT ALSO HE HAS DEMONSTRATED A CERTAIN POLITICAL AGILITY. HIS TRIPS TO COUNTRIES PREVIOUSLY OFF LIMITS WERE CRITICIZED BUT ALSO AROUSED INTEREST:

    // BARKEY ACTUALITY //

    HIS TRIPS -- WHETHER THEY WERE TO LIBYA AND NIGERIA ON THE ONE HAND OR IRAN AND THE FAR EAST ON THE OTHER -- DID CAPTURE PEOPLE'S IMAGINATION, IN PART BECAUSE THEY WERE VERY CONTROVERSIAL. ON THE OTHE HAND, HE DID CAPTURE THE AGENDA AT THE TIME. BOTH THE ANTI-"WELFARE" (PARTY) PRESS AND THE PRO-"WELFARE" PRESS DID NOTHING BUT COVER THOSE TRIPS, AND IN FACT IT GAVE THE APPEARANCE TO THE PUBLIC IN GENERAL THAT THIS WAS A GUY WHO WAS TRYING TO DO SOMETHING.

    // END ACT //

    PROFESSOR BARKEY SAYS THE INABILITY OF THE MAINSTREAM PARTIES TO DEAL EFFECTIVELY WITH THE ECONOMY AND CORRUPTION HAS SWUNG SUPPORT TO THE REFAH. MAYORS BELONGING TO THE PARTY HAVE PROVED DILIGENT AND COMPETENT IN MANY TURKISH CITIES. (SIGNED)
    NEB/EW/CF
    13-Jan-97 12:58 PM EST (1758 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] U-S / CYPRUS (S-ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=1/13/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-208620
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES SAYS THE IMMEDIATE CRISIS IS OVER IN CYPRUS AND THE SIDES ARE READY TO RESUME DISCUSSIONS ON RELIEVING TENSION ALONG THEIR CEASE-FIRE LINE. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT.

    TEXT: THE UNITED STATES BELIEVES THE PLEDGE OF CYPRUS NOT TO RECEIVE ANY COMPONENTS OF THE RUSSIAN ANTI-AIRCRAFT SYSTEM FOR 16 MONTHS HAS ENDED A CRISIS IN WHICH TURKEY HAD THREATENED TO ATTACK THE MISSILES.

    BOTH TURKEY AND THE TURKISH CYPRIOTS INSIST THE CRISIS STILL EXISTS, BUT STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS SAYS THE PLEDGE BY CYPRUS SHOULD RELIEVE TURKISH FEARS.

    /// BURNS ACT ///

    THAT SHOULD DO AWAY WITH SOME OF THESE VERY AGGRESSIVE STATEMENTS THAT WE'VE SEEN FROM THE GOVERNMENT IN TURKEY. THERE'S NO NEED FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF TURKEY TO EXAGGERATE THE IMPORTANCE OF THE EVENTS THIS WEEK. THEY HAVE A LOT OF TIME TO WORK WITH THE CYPRIOT GOVERNMENT TO DEFUSE ANY KIND OF MISUNDERSTANDINGS.

    /// END ACT ///

    STATE DEPARTMENT OFFICIAL CAREY CAVANAUGH WILL HAVE TALKS WITH TURKISH LEADERS IN ANKARA TO CONVEY THE CYPRIOT GOVERNMENT'S POSITION.

    THE STATE DEPARTMENT SAYS THE UNITED NATIONS WILL HAVE TALKS THIS WEEK WITH THE GREEK AND TURKISH CYPRIOTS TO GET AGREEMENT ON A SERIES OF CONFIDENCE-BUILDING MEASURES ON THEIR CEASE-FIRE LINES. THE UNITED STATES SAYS BOTH SIDES SUPPORT THE MEASURES DESIGNED TO PREVENT SHOOTING INCIDENTS ACROSS THE BUFFER ZONE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RP/CB/RRM
    13-Jan-97 4:03 PM EST (2103 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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