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Turkey's Stance during World War II

Also on HR-Net:
  • U.S. State Department [Eizenstat] Report on U.S. and Allied Wartime and Postwar Relations and Negotiations With Argentina, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and Turkey on Looted Gold and German External Assets and U.S. Concerns About the Fate of the Wartime Ustasha Treasury (June 1998)

  • U.S. State Department [Eizenstat] Report on Allied Relations and Negotiations With Turkey [In PDF]
    A. Turkey's Neutrality in World War II
    B. High-Level Allied Discussion of Turkish Neutrality
    C. Allied Failure To Bring Turkey Into the War in 1944
    D. The Economic Side of Turkish Neutrality
    E. Allied Economic Policies Toward Neutral Turkey; Preclusive Trade and Military Assistance
    F. U.S. Participation in the Preclusive Purchasing Program of Turkish Chromite and Other Commodities
    G. Turkish Cessation of Trade With Germany, April 1944
    H. Turkish Severance of Relations With Germany and Declaration of War, 1944-1945
    I. Turkey's Wartime Trade in German Looted Gold
    J. Allied Attempts To Implement a Safehaven Program in Turkey
    K. Attempts at a Postwar Allied-Turkish Agreement on Restitution and Reparation of Looted Gold and German External Assets
    L. U.S.-Turkish Relations: From "Live and Let Live" to the Truman Doctrine
    M. Failure To Reach Agreements With Turkey on Restitution of Gold and German External Assets, 1947-1953

  • U.S State Department Preliminary Study on U.S. and Allied Efforts To Recover and Restore Gold and Other Assets Stolen or Hidden by Germany During World War II (Includes Finding Aids to Records at the National Archives) (May 1997)

  • U.S. State Department Holocaust Assets

  • PBS Frontline Nazi Gold
  • PBS Frontline Turkey

  • Also, related International Press articles:
    The Daily Telegraph Neutral countries accused over Nazi gold (Jun. 2, 1998)
    CNN Report: Neutral nations' trade kept Nazi war machine going (Jun. 2, 1998)
    CNN Solidarity lacking as conference on Nazi gold ends (Dec. 4 1997)
    CNN World War II allies attacked at Nazi gold conference (Dec. 3, 1997)
    CNN 'Harsh report' critical of Swiss-Nazi gold (May 6, 1997)
    CNN 'Nazi gold' settlement mixes intangibles with money (Aug. 21, 1998)
    Anadolu Agency Nazi Gold - Gurel, State Minister: ''No one has right to work for making Turkey an accomplice to someone else's crimes'' (Jun. 5, 1998)