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RFE/RL Newsline, Vol. 4, No. 91, 00-05-11

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty: Newsline Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty <http://www.rferl.org>

RFE/RL NEWSLINE

Vol. 4, No. 91, 11 May 2000 Caucasus Report," Vol. 3, No. 16, 21 April

2000). He

CONTENTS

[A] TRANSCAUCASUS AND CENTRAL ASIA

  • [01] ARMENIAN PARLIAMENT MAJORITY AT ODDS OVER CANDIDATE FOR
  • [02] ...WHILE WAR VETERANS DISAGREE OVER IMPEACHMENT
  • [03] COUNTERWEIGHT TO ARMENIAN VETERANS' UNION FORMED
  • [04] AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, TURKEY SIGN KEY PIPELINE AGREEMENT
  • [05] AZERBAIJANI WOMEN ARRESTED IN BAKU PROTEST DEMO
  • [06] GEORGIAN PARLIAMENT ENDORSES MINISTER OF STATE
  • [07] GEORGIAN PRESIDENT PROPOSES CREATING NEW GOVERNMENT POST...
  • [08] ...AND INCREASED GOVERNMENT LIAISON WITH MEDIA
  • [09] KAZAKHSTAN OFFSHORE OIL-FILED CONTAINS 'MAJOR RESERVES'
  • [10] TAJIKISTAN REGISTERS INCREASE IN DRUG-TRAFFICKING
  • [11] U.S. WARNS TURKMENISTAN OVER PLANNED GAS PIPELINE

  • [B] SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE

  • [12] KOSOVARS SET TO POSTPONE INDEPENDENCE?
  • [13] THACI SEEMS TO SAY 'YES'
  • [14] WHAT ROLE FOR SERBS?
  • [15] KOUCHNER HAILS 'HISTORIC AGREEMENT'
  • [16] SERBS, ALBANIANS STAGE PROTESTS
  • [17] OPPOSITION RALLIES IN SERBIA
  • [18] MORE TROUBLE IN THE OFFING IN SERBIA?
  • [19] REGIME STEPS UP PRESSURE IN MONTENEGRO
  • [20] CROATIA JOINS PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE
  • [21] RIGHTISTS DEMONSTRATE IN SPLIT
  • [22] JOINT EDUCATION PACT FOR BOSNIA
  • [23] ROMANIAN MONEY-LAUNDERING INVESTIGATION PROMPTS
  • [24] ...AS FORMER FOREIGN MINISTER LIKELY TO BE DRAWN IN
  • [25] MOLDOVAN PARTIES BACK EU INTEGRATION PROCESS
  • [26] BULGARIAN COURT POSTPONES HEARING ON BALKAN AIR STRIKE

  • [C] END NOTE

  • [27] ARMENIA'S GROWING PAINS OF DEMOCRACY

  • [A] TRANSCAUCASUS AND CENTRAL ASIA

    [01] ARMENIAN PARLIAMENT MAJORITY AT ODDS OVER CANDIDATE FOR

    PREMIER...

    Ongoing consultations between the Republican Party

    of Armenia (HHK) and the People's Party of Armenia (HZhK),

    which together form the Miasnutiun majority parliamentary

    faction, have not yet yielded an agreement on the bloc's

    candidate to head the new government, RFE/RL's Yerevan bureau

    reported on 10 May. The HZhK reportedly objects to the HHK's

    proposed candidate, its chairman Andranik Markarian. But

    parliamentary speaker Armen Khachatrian denied on 10 May that

    Miasnutiun is on the verge of splitting, according to

    Armenpress. He told journalists that both the HZhK and the

    HHK agree that Miasnutiun should nominate the new premier. LF

    [02] ...WHILE WAR VETERANS DISAGREE OVER IMPEACHMENT

    The

    Yerkrapah Union of Veterans of the Karabakh war, which is

    aligned with the HHK, is divided over whether to push for

    President Robert Kocharian's impeachment, Noyan Tapan and

    RFE/RL's Yerevan bureau reported on 10 May. Angered by

    Kocharian's 2 May dismissal of Premier Aram Sargsian, some

    Yerkrapah members still reject any participation in

    discussions with the president on the composition of the new

    cabinet and have called for Kocharian's impeachment.

    Yerkrapah leader General Manvel Grigorian, however, whom

    Kocharian promoted in March to deputy defense minister, is

    said to oppose any "drastic steps" (see also "End Note"

    below). LF

    [03] COUNTERWEIGHT TO ARMENIAN VETERANS' UNION FORMED

    A new

    organization representing Karabakh war veterans was

    established on 9 May, RFE/RL's Yerevan bureau and Noyan Tapan

    reported on 10 and 11 May. Named Veterans of the Liberation

    Struggle, the new body is headed by General Arkadii Ter-

    Tadevossian, one of the commanders of Armenian forces during

    the Karabakh war, and includes several former militias who

    participated in that fighting. Ter-Tadevossian on 9 May

    condemned as inappropriate Yerkrapah's involvement in

    Armenian domestic politics. But at the same time he stressed

    that the new union is not an opponent of Yerkrapah, whose

    members he referred to as "our brothers." Prominent Yerkrapah

    member Ruben Gevorgian on 10 May condemned the new union,

    saying that Ter-Tadevossian created it on orders from the

    president. LF

    [04] AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, TURKEY SIGN KEY PIPELINE AGREEMENT

    Representatives of the governments of Azerbaijan, Georgia,

    and Turkey signed an agreement in Istanbul late on 9 May on

    Azerbaijan's legal obligations as one of the countries that

    the planned Baku-Ceyhan oil export pipeline will transit,

    according to a Cambridge Energy Research Associates press

    release circulated by Groong. That agreement, which

    participants at the signing ceremony termed "historic,"

    completes the legal framework for the project and thus paves

    the way for creation of a "sponsors' group" that will seek

    funding for its implementation. The total cost of the 1730

    kilometer pipeline is estimated at $2.4-3 billion.

    Construction is planned to be completed in 2004-2005.

    Speaking in Istanbul on 10 May, U.S. presidential adviser for

    the Caspian John Wolf, who attended the 9 May signing

    ceremony, said the U.S. would welcome Russian participation

    in the Baku-Ceyhan project, ITAR-TASS reported. LF

    [05] AZERBAIJANI WOMEN ARRESTED IN BAKU PROTEST DEMO

    Some 60

    women staged an unsanctioned march through Baku on 10 May,

    banging saucepans to underscore their demand for greater

    employment opportunities for women and an increase in family

    allowances. They also demanded the resignation of President

    Heidar Aliev, whom they accused of suppressing dissent. The

    protest was timed to coincide with Aliev's 77th birthday.

    Police detained some 35 demonstrators outside the parliament

    building but later released all but nine or 10 of them. LF

    [06] GEORGIAN PARLIAMENT ENDORSES MINISTER OF STATE

    By a vote of

    156 to nine, deputies on 11 May approved the candidacy of Gia

    Arsenishvili for the post of minister of state in the next

    government, Caucasus Press reported. Most members of the

    second-largest Revival faction abstained from the vote.

    Georgian President Eduard Shevardnadze had proposed the

    candidacy of Arsenishvili, a former mathematics professor and

    governor of Kakheti (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 10 May 2000). LF

    [07] GEORGIAN PRESIDENT PROPOSES CREATING NEW GOVERNMENT POST...

    Shevardnadze has proposed that the Georgian constitution be

    amended to include the new post of minister-commissioner,

    Caucasus Press reported on 10 May. That minister would be

    charged by the president with special duties and would

    initially focus on the search for a solution to the conflicts

    in Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Observers have identified as

    possible candidates for that position Georgia's ambassador to

    the UN, Petre Chkheidze, and outgoing Minister of State Vazha

    Lortkipanidze. On 11 May the parliament is to consider

    Shevardnadze's proposal to reduce the number of ministries

    from 22 to 19 by amalgamating the Ministries of Transport and

    Communications as well as the Ministries of Trade and

    Economy. The Ministry of Foreign Economic relations will be

    abolished and its functions divided between the Foreign

    Ministry and the new Ministry for Trade and the Economy. The

    streamlining is intended to reduce the size of the state

    bureaucracy. LF

    [08] ...AND INCREASED GOVERNMENT LIAISON WITH MEDIA

    Shevardnadze

    has also proposed that each ministry introduce the post of

    deputy minister with responsibility for liaising with the

    media, Caucasus Press reported on 10 May, citing "Rezonansi."

    LF

    [09] KAZAKHSTAN OFFSHORE OIL-FILED CONTAINS 'MAJOR RESERVES'

    Kazakhstan's Prime Minister Qasymzhomart Toqaev said on 10

    May in the western port of Atyrau that the first test well

    drilled by the Offshore Kazakhstan International Operating

    Company (OKIOC) at the East Kashagan off-shore Caspian oil

    field indicates that structure contains "big deposits of

    oil," Reuters reported. Toqaev said it is "too early" to

    mention a specific figure. But experts believe East Kashagan,

    which lies in shallow waters close to the northern shore of

    the Caspian, may contain up to 4 billion tons of crude. LF

    [10] TAJIKISTAN REGISTERS INCREASE IN DRUG-TRAFFICKING

    Over 2,000

    drug smugglers were intercepted and apprehended in Tajikistan

    in 1998, an increase of one-third over the previous year,

    ITAR-TASS reported on 10 May. citing a report compiled by the

    national agency for drug control. The number of women engaged

    in drug-trafficking is also rising: women accounted for one-

    fifth of those convicted for peddling drugs in 1999. That

    report also registered an increase in drug addition,

    especially among young people. Seventy-five percent of

    registered addicts in Tajikistan are under 30, according to

    "Nezavisimaya gazeta" of 6 May. LF

    [11] U.S. WARNS TURKMENISTAN OVER PLANNED GAS PIPELINE

    U.S.

    presidential adviser for the Caspian John Wolf warned that

    Turkmenistan may lose the Turkish gas market unless it makes

    a swift and firm commitment to the proposed Trans-Caspian gas

    pipeline, the "Wall Street Journal" reported on 11 May.

    Turkmenistan's President Saparmurat Niyazov has delayed doing

    so because of disagreements with the consortium created to

    manage that project and with Azerbaijan over the amount of

    Azerbaijani gas that would be exported to Turkey via that

    pipeline (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 13 and 23 March 2000). LF


    [B] SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE

    [12] KOSOVARS SET TO POSTPONE INDEPENDENCE?

    Albert Rohan, who is

    the OSCE's chief Balkan envoy, told Reuters in Vienna on 10

    May that Kosova's ethnic Albanian political leaders

    understand that the international community will not agree to

    their demand for independence at this time. He added that the

    Kosovars also recognize the need for an interim political

    settlement to be worked out soon in order to reduce tensions

    in the province. Rohan stressed that the Albanians have made

    an "important concession" in agreeing to "postpone their

    desire for a swift, final settlement" (see "RFE/RL South

    Slavic Report," 27 April and 4 May 2000). PM

    [13] THACI SEEMS TO SAY 'YES'

    Hashim Thaci, who was the leader of

    the former Kosova Liberation Army (UCK) and is now one of the

    province's top politicians, told Vienna's "Die Presse" of 11

    May that an "independent Kosova is important for the

    stability of the Balkans." He added, however, that the time

    for independence has not yet arrived: "Independence will come

    once the Kosovars have decided on it and we have convinced

    the world" of the need for it. For now, he said, his priority

    is that Kosova remains at peace and that free local elections

    will take place, probably in the fall. He urged local Serbs

    to take part in the registration process leading up to the

    elections, saying that they will not have a voice in the

    province's future if they do not. Thaci dismissed as

    unfounded Serbian fears that many illegal immigrants from

    Albania will try to vote in the elections. The former UCK

    leader said that he is more worried that Yugoslav President

    Slobodan Milosevic will send hard-liners and agents into

    Kosova to disrupt the ballot. PM

    [14] WHAT ROLE FOR SERBS?

    Rohan told Reuters in Vienna on 10 May

    that representatives of the Serbian minority will join talks

    on an interim settlement once they realize that they will

    "have no say in the matter" if they boycott the talks. The

    negotiations will involve regional and international experts

    and take place in Kosova. Rohan stressed that he does not

    envisage "another Rambouillet." By this, he presumably means

    that he does not want a media spectacle with political

    grandstanding by some of the participants, as was the case

    with the 1999 Rambouillet talks. PM

    [15] KOUCHNER HAILS 'HISTORIC AGREEMENT'

    Bernard Kouchner, who

    heads the UN's civilian administration in Kosova, said in

    Prishtina on 10 May that Albanian and Serbian members of his

    interim council issued a "historic" statement condemning

    crimes committed against the other ethnic group and appealing

    to all people to shun violence. He called the session "the

    most important meeting we have had" since the council was

    formed several months ago, Reuters reported. The council

    called for the release of the perhaps 1,200 ethnic Albanians

    being held in Serbian jails. Its statement did not include an

    appeal to ethnic Albanians to help clarify the fate of the

    perhaps 900 Serbs and other non-Albanians classified as

    missing, Reuters added. PM

    [16] SERBS, ALBANIANS STAGE PROTESTS

    Several hundred relatives of

    missing Kosova Serbs demonstrated in Belgrade on 10 May to

    demand that the international community and the Serbian

    authorities help clarify the fate of their loved ones. Ranko

    Djinovic, who heads the organization Families of the

    Kidnapped, said that a "conspiracy of silence" by the

    foreigners and Serbian authorities alike has prevented the

    relatives from finding out the truth. Meanwhile in the

    Kosovar town of Istog, some 2,000 ethnic Albanians

    demonstrated against plans by Kosova Serbs and the

    international community to return Serbian refugees to the

    province (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 3 May 2000). Spokesmen said

    that the Serbs will not be welcome until all ethnic Albanians

    are freed from Serbian jails and until additional,

    unspecified conditions are met, Reuters reported. PM

    [17] OPPOSITION RALLIES IN SERBIA

    Some 10,000 political opponents

    of Milosevic gathered in Kragujevac and an additional 2,000

    in Cacak to protest the regime's recent moves to block a

    major protest in Pozarevac (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 10 May

    2000). Opposition leaders have called a rally in Belgrade for

    15 May. Zoran Djindjic and other opposition leaders noted

    that the regime was able to draw only about 150 supporters

    for its own rally in Pozarevac, which is the home town of the

    Milosevic family, Reuters reported. Several opposition

    leaders condemned recent remarks by Milosevic referring to

    the opposition as "traitors, lackeys, and blood-covered

    collaborators of the [NATO] occupiers" of Kosova. PM

    [18] MORE TROUBLE IN THE OFFING IN SERBIA?

    Mladen Dinkic, who is

    coordinator of the G-17 group of economists, said in

    Kragujevac that he fears that the regime is preparing to

    declare a state of emergency, "Danas" reported on 11 May. He

    called "unprecedented" the combination of repressive means

    used to prevent the demonstration in Pozarevac. Meanwhile in

    Belgrade, a lawyer for non-regime journalist Miroslav

    Filipovic said on 10 May that his client has been arrested

    and may have to appear before a military court in Nis on

    charges of "criminal espionage" and "undermining the national

    defense system," Reuters reported. PM

    [19] REGIME STEPS UP PRESSURE IN MONTENEGRO

    The Yugoslav army

    command in Montenegro issued a statement in Podgorica on 10

    May calling on the government to "react" to a recent report

    in the London-based daily "Independent" to the effect that

    the government has trained an elite unit of snipers to

    "liquidate army officers," RFE/RL's South Slavic Service

    reported. Elsewhere, the pro-Milosevic Socialist People's

    Party filed legal charges against Prime Minister Filip

    Vujanovic and two cabinet ministers for abuse of office,

    "Danas" reported. PM

    [20] CROATIA JOINS PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE

    NATO Secretary-General

    Lord Robertson and Croatian Prime Minister Ivica Racan

    announced in Brussels on 10 May that Croatia will officially

    join NATO's Partnership for Peace program in Florence later

    in May. Robertson said that Croatia's recent elections showed

    that the country is ready to take "its place in the Euro-

    Atlantic family," Reuters reported. Racan emphasized that

    joining the NATO program will increase the chances that his

    country will receive additional foreign investments. Anton

    Tus, who is a retired Croatian air force general and a well-

    known military affairs commentator, told "Jutarnji list" of

    11 May that the Croatian military has nearly met NATO

    requirements for membership as far as its personnel are

    concerned but that its equipment is far from up to the task.

    Tus predicted that Croatia will join the alliance in 2005. PM

    [21] RIGHTISTS DEMONSTRATE IN SPLIT

    Some 5,000 veterans of the

    1990-1995 conflict demonstrated in Split on 10 May to protest

    the government's plans to cooperate with the Hague-based war

    crimes tribunal, "Jutarnji list" reported. PM

    [22] JOINT EDUCATION PACT FOR BOSNIA

    Education ministers from the

    Republika Srpska and the mainly Croatian and Muslim

    federation signed an agreement in Sarajevo on 10 May to

    provide for a unified educational policy throughout Bosnia.

    Textbooks will teach a common heritage for all Bosnians and

    use both the Latin and Cyrillic alphabets, "Oslobodjenje"

    reported. The two sides worked out the program under the

    sponsorship of the international community's chief

    representative's office and of the Council of Europe. PM

    [23] ROMANIAN MONEY-LAUNDERING INVESTIGATION PROMPTS

    CONTRADICTORY CLAIMS...

    As French investigators began

    questioning witnesses in Bucharest, the ongoing money-

    laundering scandal in Romania (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 5 and

    9 May 2000) has prompted contradictory statements from

    former officials, RFE/RL's Bucharest bureau reported. At

    the center of the affair is a French-Romanian citizen.

    Party of Social Democracy (PDSR) in Romania Chairman Ion

    Iliescu denied that Adrian Costea had been issued a

    diplomatic passport on the orders of the presidential

    office at the time Iliescu was president. Iliescu added

    that Costea had "never had an official status" in the

    presidential office, either. He stressed that the scandal

    was a "diversion" aimed at "keeping people away from the

    ballot" in next month's local elections. Also on 10 May,

    Alliance for Romania (APR) Chairman Teodor Melescanu said

    Costea had been issued the passport on the orders of the

    presidential office . On 9 May the Foreign Ministry ordered

    the withdrawal of the diplomatic passport and fired the

    official currently in charge of issuing such documents. MS

    [24] ...AS FORMER FOREIGN MINISTER LIKELY TO BE DRAWN IN

    APR

    spokesman Marian Enache on 10 May said Melescanu has "so

    far" received no summons to testify in the investigation.

    Enache avoided answering questions on whether Costea had

    been one of the party's main financial sponsors in 1997.

    The allegation was made by former APR Secretary-General

    Mircea Osache, but Enache said the APR "has no documents"

    to confirm such had been the case. Paul Dobrescu, who is

    now APR secretary-general, said "it cannot be ruled out"

    that Costea was "among the APR sponsors" in 1997. At that

    time, he added, the formation was witnessing "a wave of

    sympathy." MS

    [25] MOLDOVAN PARTIES BACK EU INTEGRATION PROCESS

    Twenty out of

    Moldova's 28 registered political parties have signed a

    declaration in support of the country's integration into

    the EU, RFE/RL's Chisinau bureau reported on 10 May. The

    declaration defines EU integration as "a fundamental

    national strategic objective." The parties pledged to

    cooperate in harmonizing legislation with that of the union

    and called for starting negotiations on obtaining the

    status of an associate member. On 1 July 1998 Moldova

    signed an agreement of "partnership and cooperation" with

    the union. The signatories also call on the EU to assist

    Moldova in obtaining full membership in the Southeast

    European Stability Pact. MS

    [26] BULGARIAN COURT POSTPONES HEARING ON BALKAN AIR STRIKE

    A

    court in Sofia on 10 May postponed hearings on the labor

    dispute that involves striking pilots from the Balkan

    Airlines national carrier and the company's management. The

    court accepted the pilots' request to delay the debate till

    22 May. Prime Minster Ivan Kostov the same day threatened to

    declare Balkan Airlines insolvent if the labor conflict is

    not resolved, Reuters and AP reported. MS


    [C] END NOTE

    [27] ARMENIA'S GROWING PAINS OF DEMOCRACY

    By Richard Giragosian

    The political tensions brewing in Armenia over the past

    few months between President Robert Kocharian and his

    parliamentary opponents culminated in the 2 May dismissal of

    Prime Minister Aram Sargsian and Defense Minister Vagharshak

    Harutiunian. The president is now moving to reassert control

    over a divided parliament as he faces the challenges of

    negotiating an end to the Nagorno Karabakh conflict and

    overcoming corruption and economic malaise.

    Having ended the constant bickering with a politically

    immature prime minister whose sole claim to political office

    was his appeal as the brother of slain Premier Vazgen

    Sargsian, Kocharian is now exploiting growing splits within

    the parliamentary Unity bloc and co-opting the Yerkrapah

    Union of Karabakh veterans. Assuming the post of premier in

    the wake of the 27 October attack on the parliament, Sargsian

    became embroiled in a series of political assaults on the

    presidency, ranging from calls for impeachment to the

    suspension of the government's privatization of the energy

    distribution network. The six-month tenure of Prime Minister

    Sargsian was most notable for its failure to address growing

    wage and pension arrears and its legacy of outstanding socio-

    economic problems to the next premier, who will be the

    country's 10th since independence.

    The president's parliamentary opponents are grouped

    under a tenuous cooperative umbrella featuring the Unity

    bloc, which has the largest group of deputies, and its

    somewhat hesitant ally, the second-largest group in the

    parliament, Stability (Kayunutiun). But there is neither

    unity nor stability in the parliament. Seemingly influenced

    by the partisanship of U.S. politics, Unity last month raised

    the possibility of the president's impeachment, going as far

    as to circulate an anonymous document listing a series of

    alleged "offenses" committed by the president. While securing

    the newspaper headlines of the day, this confrontational

    tactic proved devoid of any substantive or even coherent

    criticism of President Kocharian or his policies. Indeed,

    this lack of substance is also fostering frustration with the

    Unity leadership within Stability, which, as a collection of

    independent and unaffiliated deputies, is looking for strong

    political direction and clear strategy.

    President Kocharian has taken sufficient measures to

    preempt any serious threat from the "uniformed politicians"

    of the Yerkrapah Union of Karabakh veterans, a potentially

    pivotal combination of military thinking and politics founded

    by slain leader Vazgen Sargsian. By appointing Yerkrapah

    leader General Manvel Grigorian as deputy defense minister

    and promoting a number of senior Yerkrapah figures, Kocharian

    has in effect co-opted the union and prevented it from

    assuming any threatening role. In a similar move in Nagorno

    Karabakh, the unrecognized enclave's leader, Arkadii

    Ghukasian, marginalized the organization there and

    transformed it from a power base of the former Karabakh army

    chief Samvel Babayan into a bastion of pro-government

    support.

    But this posturing of political elites has obscured a

    much more significant development that threatens to mortgage

    the country's future by ignoring its national interests.

    Ironically, the Unity bloc, which was elected to lead the

    country out of its economic crisis, was able to pass a

    moratorium on the government's privatization effort--a key

    precondition to the disbursement of a World Bank loan tranche

    to be used in financing the budget deficit. The increasingly

    common tendency to sacrifice prudent policy to the

    requirements of partisan politics is a dangerous development

    for a small landlocked country situated in an already

    unstable region.

    A second important factor obscured by political

    infighting is the need for "good governance," specifically

    political accountability and greater transparency. Its

    absence is highlighted by the powerful former interior

    minister, Vano Siradeghian, a fugitive facing charges ranging

    from political assassinations and intimidation to corruption

    and abuse of power. After the parliament lifted his immunity

    for the second time, Siradeghian fled a trial that had

    consistently come under pressure from various powerful

    figures united by their fear of his testimony. The

    Siradeghian case is more than a criminal case with political

    implications. The prosecution of the former Ter-Petrossian

    government minister is an important step in securing a

    judicial system both viable and independent enough to

    withstand any outside pressure.

    Today's main political question is whether the president

    will feel compelled to dissolve the parliament once he

    becomes empowered to do so on 30 May, one year after it was

    elected. Kocharian can either seek to maneuver between

    divided political alliances, most notably between the Unity

    bloc and Stability, or opt to dissolve the parliament and

    call new elections. Regardless of his decision, however, an

    inherent danger lies in the strengthening of the executive at

    the expense of the legislature. The excesses of the Ter-

    Petrossian administration that derived from this fundamental

    imbalance may lead to the transformation of a country

    experiencing the "growing pains" of democracy into one

    suffering the "premature death" of democracy.

    The author compiles the monthly newsletter "TransCaucasus: A

    Chronology."

    11-05-00


    Reprinted with permission of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
    URL: http://www.rferl.org


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