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Cyprus PIO: Turkish Press and Other Media, 05-01-03

Cyprus Press and Information Office: Turkish Cypriot Press Review Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Republic of Cyprus Press and Information Office Server at <>

TURKISH PRESS AND OTHER MEDIA No.1/05 01-02-03.01.05


  • [01] Erdogan criticizes those who claim that Turkey is losing Cyprus.
  • [02] The Turks continue to call the occupation of Cyprus as isolation of the Turkish Cypriots and intend to raise the issue with Richard Armitage.
  • [03] The JDP wants no EU involvement in the Cyprus problem.
  • [04] New Turkish Lira in circulation with the old one for a year.
  • [05] Peace Mothers and extremists were in action in Turkey.
  • [06] The Turkish Army´s report on missionary activities. Five thousand Turks converted to Christianity in recent years.
  • [07] JDP Afyon deputy and Provincial leader resign.
  • [08] Talat says that 2004 has been a year with very big diplomatic successes for the Turkish side.
  • [09] KIBRISLI : "Denktas has finally given up!".
  • [10] AFRIKA: "Turkish persons are coming, the locals are going".
  • [11] GUNES newspaper supports that the National Unity Party of Dervis Eroglu is in the lead in occupied Cyprus.
  • [12] Turkish Cypriots hope for full membership into EU as a Turkish Cypriot State in 2005.
  • [13] One million 330 thousand Pounds has been spent for promoting the occupied part of Cyprus.

  • [14] Columnist argues that Cyprus will be on Turkey´s top agenda issues in 2005.


    [01] Erdogan criticizes those who claim that Turkey is losing Cyprus

    Istanbul NTV television (01.01.05) broadcast that Prime Minister [Recep] Tayyip Erdogan has, without naming them explicitly, criticized the former DEP [Democracy Party] parliamentarians. Erdogan said that he would never be able to tolerate people engaging in plots and traps to shake [the country's] unity and solidarity.

    Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan, speaking at Safranbolu, also conveyed important messages regarding Cyprus and the European Union.

    Prime Minister Erdogan, who took part in a meeting convened by his party's Safranbolu organization, criticized the former DEP parliamentary deputies, but without explicitly naming them.

    Erdogan said: "If they are going to enter into a democratic viewpoint legally, and officially, then let them do so, but those who when they are unable to succeed in this seek to gather legal strength via illegal means should know that they will never succeed."

    Stating that the public will not countenance appearances of this sort, Erdogan said: "I feel sorry for those people who have been deceived; I pity them, because we are equidistant, on the point of service, from all of this country's 72 million citizens."

    Asserting that he is responsible for the society's freedom of belief, life, and property, without distinction in terms of ethnic origin or religion, Erdogan added: "We do have our sensitivities, however. If there are those who seek to exploit these sensitivities, they should not bother, because we are behind our people to the very utmost."

    Messages regarding Cyprus and the EU

    The Prime Minister, declaring the decision as to whether or not to begin this effort [referring to EU membership negotiations] on 3 October is in his hands, said that they will conduct the process of recognizing the Republic of Cyprus in conjunction with the UN, and that they will enter into intense work with that organization. Prime Minister Erdogan said with regard to the EU that the goal of full membership is firm, and that no one should engage in speculation.

    Saying that "The decision whether or not to begin this effort on 3 October is in our hands", Erdogan also said that, if steps should be taken regarding the supplementary protocol of the Ankara Agreement, they will end the affair. Erdogan also stated that [Turkey's] negotiating partners will be the EU Commission and the Term President.

    Furthermore, HALKIN SESI (03.01.05) reported that during his statements at Safranbolu Mr Erdogan said: "Do not pay attention to the statements that Cyprus is being lost for Turkey. Nobody should deviate from the target. We want to settle this issue with the UN".

    [02] The Turks continue to call the occupation of Cyprus as isolation of the Turkish Cypriots and intend to raise the issue with Richard Armitage

    Istanbul NTV television (02.01.05) broadcast that the US Deputy Secretary of State, Mr Richard Armitage, concluded his talks in Iraq and arrived in Ankara this afternoon. He will begin his talks tomorrow [3 January]. His talks will mainly focus on the developments in Iraq and the Middle East.

    Replying to reporters' questions at Esenboga Airport, Armitage denied the reports to the effect that he delivered a letter from President Bush to the Kurdish leaders in north Iraq. Recalling that he met KDP [Kurdish Democratic Party] leader Barzani in Irbil, Armitage said: We had a long talk on issues that concern our presence in the region. I think that these issues are of interest to Ankara as well. I wanted to talk to them before I talked to you.

    The US Deputy Secretary of State will hold his first meeting tomorrow with Foreign Minister Abdullah Gul. He will also be received by Assembly Speaker Bulent Arinc and by Chief of the General Staff Hilmi Ozkok.

    During the meetings with Armitage, Ankara is expected to voice its expectations for steps from Washington regarding the struggle against the PKK/KONGRA-GEL [Workers Party of Kurdistan/People's Congress of Kurdistan] presence in Iraq, the security of Turkish truck drivers in Iraq, and the lifting of the "isolation" in occupied north part of Cyprus.

    [03] The JDP wants no EU involvement in the Cyprus problem

    Istanbul NTV television (02.01.05) broadcast that Saban Disli, JDP [Justice and Development Party] deputy leader responsible for foreign relations, has said he believes that the Cyprus problem should be solved independently from the EU. He stressed that a solution can only be reached on the basis of the Annan plan and under the UN good offices mission.

    Saban Disli was the guest speaker at a meeting on the political and economic developments in the EU accession process. He said that the EU has now become a party to the Cyprus issue, and stressed that the address of the solution lies in the United Nations.

    He said: "It is important to reach a solution within a UN framework because of the following: The EU, too, can come up with a plan, but the EU is a party to this issue because south Cyprus is an EU member. Therefore, I think it is useful to find a solution on the basis of the Annan plan. We support a UN mediation initiative on the basis of its goodwill mission. Once we reach an agreement, we will agree to the establishment of a joint Cyprus state".

    Disli stressed that there cannot be a solution outside the Annan plan in Cyprus. He also said that Turkey will continue to make efforts to have the occupied Tymbou Airport opened to international flights.

    He said: "In the coming days, we will continue to make efforts, to put pressure. We expect somebody to take a first step. And that somebody must be one of the big powers. We hope it will be the United States or Britain".

    To a question on the presidential system, Disli replied: "Our party is not working on this issue. Nevertheless, it would be useful to debate this matter".

    Meanwhile, Turkish Cypriot daily KIBRIS newspaper (03.01.05) reports that referring to the issue of the direct flights to occupied Cyprus Sadettin Gezmek, deputy general director and member of the "administrative council" of the illegal Turkish Cypriot airlines, has said that his company could not make any flight which is not planned, except some "direct flights with political aim".

    In statements to KIBRIS Mr Gezmek noted that the illegal airlines had the necessary infrastructure to conduct direct flights to the occupied areas without any problems. He alleged that the Turkish Cypriot "airlines" would fulfill their duty regarding the direct flights, which will be conducted for political reasons.

    [04] New Turkish Lira in circulation with the old one for a year

    Ankara Anatolia news agency (01.01.05) reported from Ankara that the New Turkish Lira (YTL) started to be in use as of midnight. The New Turkish Lira emerged when Central Bank dropped 6 zeros from current Turkish lira (TL).

    The New Turkish Lira will be used together with current TL. There will be banknotes of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 YTL besides 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 New Kurus (YKr).

    YTL and YKr will be in use as of January 1st, 2005 and they will be used together with TL throughout one year.

    On the second phase, ''new'' phrase will be erased and the monetary unit will be called as TL again. This will happen in 2007-2008. Current TL will be withdrawn from circulation as of January 1st, 2006.

    Central Bank Governor Sureyya Serdengecti said: ''90-95 percent of TL banknotes in circulation is expected to be changed to YTL as of the end of February.''

    All accounting documents and financial reports will be arranged with YTL as of new year.

    [05] Peace Mothers and extremists were in action in Turkey

    Ankara Anatolia news agency (30.12.04) reported from Ankara that a group of women calling themselves the "Peace Mothers Initiative" met with officials while visiting the General Staff Headquarters.

    The group of women firstly met in front of the Human Rights Memorial on Yuksel Road at around midday then, stating that they had an appointment with the Chief of Staff, they expressed their wish to speak with him.

    The women walked from here holding a bunch of flowers and with a police escort to the entrance of the General Staff headquarters, where they were admitted after being frisked. The women stayed for about 20 minutes then returned to Yuksel Road where they issued a press statement together with other women waiting for them there.

    The group spokesperson said that the Chief of Staff had been unable to see them because of his full schedule but that they talked on the telephone to an officer from the General Staff Chief Clerk's Office once they were inside.

    Stating that this officer suggested they write a letter asking for an appointment the spokesperson said they handed over a CD they had taken along with them containing the Peace Mothers' demands to the officials and then they left.

    Asking for the operations in East and Southeast Anatolia to be halted the women dispersed after their statement.

    Ankara Anatolia (31.12.04) reported from Istanbul that a group of members of Alperen Association held a demonstration in Istanbul on Friday to protest the Greek-Orthodox Patriarchate.

    Members of the group opened a Turkish flag in the street where the patriarchate takes place, and chanted slogans like, "the Ottomans are here, where are the Crusaders?"

    Speaking on behalf of the group, Hasan Nuri Sen, provincial chairman of the Association's branch in Istanbul, said: "Officials of the patriarchate have been misusing the opportunities granted by Turkey by trying to form a second Vatican in the middle of Istanbul with the request for ecumenicism. We are determined to fight against all kinds of betrayal."

    Following the press release, the group dispersed.

    Ankara Anatolia (02.01.05) reported also from Istanbul that Haydar Bas, head of the Independent Turkey Party [BTP], has said that "the Turkish Republic created by Ataturk 81 years ago is at the brink of losing its independence," adding: "We say no to the EU which imposes conditions harsher than those of the Sevres Treaty and no to the United States' Greater Middle East Project."

    The BTP Istanbul branch organized a rally in Caglayan Square under the banner: "No to the EU, no to the United States; the only Solution is an Independent Turkey." The rally began with a moment of silence observed in memory of the martyrs and then with the singing of the national anthem.

    Addressing a crowd of about 3,000 persons, Bas maintained that "the secular, democratic, and fully independent Turkish Republic which was established by Ataturk 81 years ago is at the brink of losing its independence, and the country faces the danger of division and secession during the accession talks with the EU."

    Bas charged that the EU countries do not guarantee Turkey's full membership, and that they have announced they will not grant Turkey the right to free circulation and will not admit Turkey to the EU's decision-making organs. He added: "The Turkish people will not be able to find jobs in Europe. There is nothing the Turkish state or nation can gain from the EU. Then what are we doing at the EU? We say no to the EU which imposes conditions harsher than those of the Sevres Treaty and no to the United States' Greater Middle East Project. We believe that this nation's fate will be saved by the national will. A national independence army for an independent Turkey!"

    Bas criticized the US policy in the Middle East, adding: "We do not want to be the ally of a country that placed sacks over the heads of Turkish soldiers. The policy Turkey must pursue in order to become a leading country in the world is to establish cooperation with the Balkans, the Caucasus, and the countries in the Middle East none of which covet Turkish land."

    [06] The Turkish Army´s report on missionary activities. Five thousand Turks converted to Christianity in recent years

    Istanbul ORTADOGU newspaper (01.01.05) publishes the following report under the title: "Report on missionary activity from TAF":

    "The Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) have put their signature to yet another important effort. In a report drawn up by the TAF under the title "Missionary Activities in Our Country and the World", it is stated that missionaries have focused their efforts on Alevi and Kurdish citizens, whom they consider to be in a moral vacuum.

    Efforts proceeding at full speed

    According to the report, the missionaries separate the concept of Islam in Turkey into two components, i.e., Sunni and Alevi, and determine their strategy in accordance with this distinction. Protestant missionaries, by establishing within two or three years a theology institute, which will not have a secret nature, will meet their needs for clergy from this. The TAF's report cites 69 unofficial places of worship that have been able to be identified in Turkey, including 47 belonging to Protestants, 9 to Baha'is, and 13 to Jehovah's Witnesses.

    Turks converting to Christianity

    It is stated in the report that, in parallel with the increased missionary activity in recent years, the number of Turkish citizens who have converted from Islam to Christianity and other religions (Baha'ism, the Jehovah's Witnesses, etc.) is about five thousand. It has been registered in the "General Directorate of Population and Citizenship Affairs" that, in three years, 185 persons changed their religion by officially converting to Christianity and one by converting to Judaism.

    The report, which points out that the missionaries, in order to attain their goals, have generally selected as their targets young people, who are lacking in religious knowledge and are in a moral vacuum, and particularly Kurdish and Alevi citizens, notes that the missionaries also seek to win over those who have experienced an atmosphere of war, civil conflict, and terror, as well as those who have been the victims of natural disasters such as earthquakes.

    They conceal themselves

    In order to thwart activities of this sort, governors' offices, security units, provincial religious authorities, and national education directors must cooperate with one another, and must be armed with information on missionary activities. Noting that missionary activities are conducted outside of official churches, and more frequently from churches set up in residences, the report states that "In these houses, the content of the religious values of society is being filled with Christian motifs." Meanwhile, in a section headed "Methods of Missionary Work", it is stated that missionaries generally conduct their activities by concealing themselves, and that they work through local people to the extent possible".

    [07] JDP Afyon deputy and Provincial leader resign

    Istanbul NTV television (31.12.04) broadcast the following: "Burhanettin Coban, the head of JDP's [Justice and Development Party] Afyon provincial organization, has announced his resignation. Burhanettin Coban, who sent his letter of resignation to the party headquarters, said that he took this decision on his own volition.

    JDP Afyon Deputy Reyhan Balandi, who is said to have problems with her party's provincial organization in Afyon, had already submitted her resignation to the chairmanship of the parliament yesterday".

    [08] Talat says that 2004 has been a year with very big diplomatic successes for the Turkish side

    Turkish Cypriot daily YENI DUZEN newspaper (03.01.05) reports that Mehmet Ali Talat, the so-called Prime Minister of the occupation regime and leader of the Republican Turkish Party (RTP), has said that Turkey and the Turkish Cypriots achieved very big diplomatic successes in 2004.

    Responding to questions of YENI DUZEN, Mr Talat said that "2005 will be a year when the gains of 2004 will get into life".

    Mr Talat continued: "'3 October is the date when Turkey will start accession negotiations with the EU. Even if this is not perceived as a final date for a solution, it is a very important date. 'Our preference as a Turkish Cypriot side is reaching a final solution until 3 October. '".

    Asked whether or not they will wait for an initiative from the Greek Cypriot side without doing anything, Mr Talat argued:

    "We are not waiting. We are in no way waiting. We have not been waiting before as well. At the end the agreement will become with the consent and the wish of both sides. If the Greek Cypriot side does not want an agreement no one can impose by force an agreement on it. The important thing for us is, by influencing the world, to follow a policy that will bring the Greek Cypriots to a point where they will want a solution. This must be the target. 'This will happen with pressure and with the lifting of the isolations, which in my opinion is the most important. 'The most correct policy for us to follow is struggling for the lifting of the isolations. The world is ready for this. The world wants this. The ground for this must be prepared. In my opinion the first step is the discussion of the Cyprus problem at the UN Security Council, the discussion of the report that (the UN Secretary-General Kofi) Annan has submitted to the Security Council, a resolution on this issue and the support to the Annan Plan. ' This is a new legal ground. The Turkish side has changed its stance. It says: 'I do not support the separation any more'. It says: 'I want unification; I want a united Cyprus'. The Greek Cypriot side says: 'No, we cannot establish a united Cyprus, I do not want this, I will continue my superiority'. 'Therefore, from the point of view of the international law, the legality of the Greek Cypriot administration is now disputable. We have to bring it onto the agenda all together'".

    [09] KIBRISLI : "Denktas has finally given up!"

    Under the above title Turkish Cypriot daily KIBRISLI newspaper (03.01.05) reports that in a letter which the Turkish Cypriot leader, Rauf Denktas has sent to a low ranking army officer he expresses the opinion that "the Cyprus case is lost" for the Turkish side.

    Mr Denktas alleges that the reason for this is the Turkish government which has lost control because of its EU course and the contribution of the "unconditional" peace supporters in Cyprus.

    Mr Denktas said that he could not see how they could save the situation, unless the Greek Cypriot side gives them again an opportunity by making some madness like it did in 1974.

    [10] AFRIKA: "Turkish persons are coming, the locals are going"

    Turkish Cypriot daily AFRIKA newspaper (03.01.05) under the banner headline "Turkish (persons) are coming the locals are going", writes about the expectations of the Turkish Cypriots for the year 2005 and notes that there is a big danger that a new wave of emigration will take place because of the developments as regards the Cyprus problem and the haphazardly coming of Turkish persons to occupied Cyprus.

    The paper writes that the Turkish Cypriots are not optimistic that a solution will be found by the 3rd of October 2005, and adds that "those who believe that the policy of hostage and refrigerator as well as the solution of the Cyprus problem have been put aside for many years, are getting ready to abandon the island".

    AFRIKA also writes that it seems that the biggest danger that the Turkish Cypriot community is expected to face in the year 2005, is a new wave of emigration and sums up the reasons that will lead to the emigration, as follows:

    * There will be solution to the Cyprus problem only after 10-15 years.

    * The issue of unemployment.

    * The issue of obligatory military service.

    * The population that comes in big numbers and without control from Turkey.

    The paper also notes that the connection of Turkey's EU procedure with the solution of the Cyprus problem gave the signal that nothing will be changed with the so-called elections that will take place in the pseudostate.

    [11] GUNES newspaper supports that the National Unity Party of Dervis Eroglu is in the lead in occupied Cyprus

    Turkish Cypriot daily GUNES newspaper (03.01.05) reports that according to some opinion polls that took place in occupied Cyprus, the National Unity Party (NUP) of Dervis Eroglu is in the lead.

    The paper writes that according to these new opinion polls, the NUP is coming first in the preferences of the "voters" and it may elect 21-22 "deputies" in the so-called elections that will take place in the pseudostate the next month. The Republican Turkish Party of Mehmet Ali Talat is coming second and may elect 16-17 "deputies".

    The percentages that the parties will receive, are as follows:

    * National Unity Party: 36-38%.

    * Republican Turkish Party: 28-30%.

    * Democratic Party: 10-12%.

    * Peace and Democracy Movement: 10-12%.

    The paper does not specify which companies conducted the polls that it refers to and does not give any information as regards the dates or the population sample used for the opinion polls.

    [12] Turkish Cypriots hope for full membership into EU as a Turkish Cypriot State in 2005

    Turkish Cypriot daily ORTAM newspaper (03.01.05), in its front page under the title "The target is full membership in 2005", reports that the aim of the Turkish Cypriots for 2005 is full membership despite the statements of Denktas and supporters of the status quo.

    The paper reports that the Turkish Cypriots hope that during the year 2005 the Cyprus problem will be solved and that they will safeguard a full membership as a Turkish Cypriot State.

    It is also reported that around 1000 Turkish Cypriot public servants participated during the year 2004 in EU training seminars and other 100 in meetings and seminars in Brussels.

    [13] One million 330 thousand Pounds has been spent for promoting the occupied part of Cyprus

    Turkish Cypriot daily KIBRIS newspaper (03.01.05) publishes an interview of the "TRNC" Coordinator of the European tourism in Britain, Mr Yilmaz Kalfaoglu. The paper, under the title "A tourism offensive in Britain", reports that the interest of the foreigners regarding the occupied part of Cyprus had increased following the results of the referendums on 24 April 2004.

    Mr Kalfaoglu had explained to the paper their plans regarding the tourism in Britain and in the Republic of Ireland. The "Tourism Centre of North Cyprus", which is located in England, continues its efforts intensively to promote the occupied area of Cyprus. The Tourism Centre apart from participating in tourism fairs, it has started an advertising campaign through the national and local papers in the UK and the Republic of Ireland.

    Mr Kalfaloglu said that they began to have contacts with tour operators who market holiday trips for the occupied area. He also added that they have published informative articles about the occupied area of Cyprus in the UK and Ireland press.

    He went on and said that between September and November 2004, eighteen articles were published promoting the tourism in the occupied area of Cyprus, and some journalists were also sent to the occupied part of Cyprus.

    Within the framework of the campaign, advertisements promoting the tourism in the occupied part of Cyprus are also being published in The Times, Daily Telegraph, Daily Mail, Daily Express, The Mail on Sunday, Sunday Telegraph, Sunday Express and some local papers in Manchester, Glasgow and in Belfast.

    Mr Kalfaoglu also said that this promotion campaign in the papers which will continue until March 2005 will cost 130 thousands Sterling. But the whole campaign for promoting the occupied part of Cyprus in UK and in the Republic of Ireland will cost one million 330 thousand Sterling.

    Noting that the year 2004 was the most successful year in tourism in "North Cyprus", Mr Kalfaoglu said that according to statistics in the first nine months of 2004, the number of British tourists who spent a night in the occupied areas of Cyprus increased by 40% compared to same period in 2003.

    Mr Kalfaoglu also noted that it is really important that the attitude of the world has changed towards to the Turkish Cypriots and added that the Travel Trade Gazette, which refused to publish any advertisements of the "North Cyprus" three-five years ago, did not refer to occupation when it published statements by the so-called Economy and Tourism Minister Dervis Deniz.

    Moreover, Mr Kalfaoglu said that the preparations for participating in eight tourism fairs until March 2005 had been completed.


    [14] Columnist argues that Cyprus will be on Turkey´s top agenda issues in 2005

    Istanbul MILLIYET newspaper (02.01.05) publishes the following commentary by Fikret Bila under the title: "Parallel flight":

    "In 2004, Turkey had locked its political agenda on receiving a negotiation date from the EU. The agenda kept revolving around this goal.

    Now, Turkey has a negotiation date: 3 October 2005.

    It can be said that in 2005 the political agenda will be locked onto the target of starting negotiations with the EU on this date. Ankara will take its steps with the objective of attaining this target.

    The agenda is also being shaped automatically when this is the target.

    There is a prerequisite for sitting at the negotiations with the EU on 3 October 2005: Cyprus.

    It appears that Ankara has been made responsible for connecting the Cyprus problem to a solution by 3 October 2005. This is the requirement of the 17 December [2004] decision.

    If Turkey wants to sit at the negotiation table on 3 October 2005, then it has two alternatives on the subject of Cyprus:

    1. To sign the protocol up until this date that would expand the Customs Union in a manner, which would also include Southern Cyprus, or

    2. To convince the Greek Cypriot administration within nine months for an agreement for the formation of the United Cyprus Republic.

    The preference of the Greek Cypriot administration is for Turkey to also recognize Southern Cyprus politically in a manner, which would not create any hesitation and to accept the Greek Cypriot administration as the legitimate state for all of Cyprus. If this could not be done, then to realize the de facto recognition with the signing of the protocol. Southern Cyprus has already put onto the agenda these two expectations with the threat of veto.

    Turkey on its own does not have the opportunity to force the Greek Cypriot administration to sit at the negotiation table and to form a new United Cyprus based on two states, two peoples and two democracies with an agreement, which would also protect the rights and laws of the Turks. Ankara will try to get the United States and the large states of the EU, led by Britain, to put pressure on the Greek Cypriot administration in order to reach this target. If a development cannot be provided in this direction, then the probability appears to be high that Turkey would sign the protocol prior to 3 October 2005 and sit at the negotiation table by saying, "This does not have the meaning of recognition."

    The EU has not given up the "Cyprus condition" at any stage and it also does not appear to have the intention of giving it up after this. It is obvious that the Iraqi problem, which is of interest to Turkey as much as Cyprus and the EU, will also preserve its place at the top of the agenda in 2005. The picture that would emerge with the Iraqi elections, which are planned to be held on 30 January [2005] and the probable political and military developments, led by northern Iraq, are important enough to influence Ankara. In case the political structure that would emerge in Iraq would accelerate the division of the country and make it unavoidable, then the answer to the question of what Turkey would do, would be a determining factor. The Iraqi problem could become a lot more important in 2005.

    In domestic politics, it is understood that the constitutional amendments within the framework of conformance with the European Constitution and in the meantime, the debates on the presidential system would come to the forefront.

    In case the foreign policy and economic data are evaluated by the JDP [Justice and Development Party] as a new indication of a leap forward, then it is observed that the debates on the presidential system would be intensified. The JDP administrators and spokesmen have already started to voice the view that this system is mandatory for governing Turkey better, for making more rapid decisions and for implementing them. The Prime Minister and the Speaker of the TGNA [Turkish Grand National Assembly] have also made statements contributing to this approach. It is definite that this subject has been put onto the agenda.

    Turkey will continue in 2005 its "parallel flight to the EU."


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