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Cyprus PIO: Turkish Press and Other Media, 05-09-21

Cyprus Press and Information Office: Turkish Cypriot Press Review Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Republic of Cyprus Press and Information Office Server at <http://www.pio.gov.cy/>

TURKISH PRESS AND OTHER MEDIA No.180/05 21.09.05

[A] NEWS ITEMS

  • [01] The Turkish Foreign Minister continues his contacts in New York.
  • [02] How the Turkish Cypriot and Turkish press cover the developments regarding the counter declaration of the EU against Turkeys declaration for Cyprus.
  • [03] The so-called Turkish Cypriot Handball Federation tries to find a way out to Europe.
  • [04] Emine Erk will participate in a conference in Canada.
  • [05] The so-called Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer evaluated his meetings in Brussels and commented on COREPER decision.
  • [06] Motherland Party leader explains his party´s low approval rating.
  • [B] COMMENTARIES, EDITORIALS AND ANALYSIS

  • [07] Columnist in AFRIKA criticizes the Turkish army for causing the fire at occupied Halevga.
  • [08] Commentary in the New Anatolian argues that the PKK is coming to an end.

  • [A] NEWS ITEMS

    [01] The Turkish Foreign Minister continues his contacts in New York

    Ankara Anatolia news agency (20.09.05) reported the following from New York:

    Turkish Foreign Minister Abdullah Gul met his Swedish counterpart Laila Freivalds and Latvian Foreign Minister Artis Pabriks, in New York, on Monday.

    Gul also attended the working lunch of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) Ministers Council, and the meeting of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) Contact Group on Jammu and Kashmir.

    Meanwhile, diplomatic sources said that Gul closely follows the debate on the counter-declaration to be issued by the EU against the one made public by Turkey, expressing its position on the Greek Cypriot administration.

    During his talks with Swedish and Latvian Foreign Ministers, Gul expressed Turkey's concerns and sensitivity about this draft and negotiating framework document.

    Diplomatic sources also quoted Gul as saying that the Greek Cypriot administration was hampering Turkey's EU process. Foreign Minister Gul pointed out that the EU should think in a strategic way regarding these matters.

    On his part, Latvian Foreign Minister Artis Pabriks said that the ''Greek Cypriot administration was playing its last trump card'', while recommended Turkey to act with common sense.

    Gul also met Mladen Ivanic, the Foreign Minister of Bosnia-Herzegovina. During this meeting, Ivanic briefed Gul on recent developments in Bosnia-Herzegovina, and asked Turkey to support his country in its relations with the EU.

    Ivanic also asked Turkey to continue to train their army.

    In his meeting with Israeli Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom, Gul referred to the new process launched in the region after Israel's pullout from the Gaza Strip.

    According to diplomatic sources, Shalom said that Middle East road map could be fully implemented if contributions and efforts to resolve the problem are maintained.

    Gul said that Turkey would contribute to the reconstruction of Gaza Strip with the support of the World Bank.

    On the other hand, Gul met his Tunisian counterpart Abdelwahab Abdallah, and debated economic, cultural and social relations. During the meeting, Gul asked Abdallah to support Turkey's UN Security Council non-permanent membership for 2009-2010, whereas Abdallah wanted Turkey to support the Tunisian candidate to the International Court of Justice in the Hague.

    Regarding the EU's Cyprus declaration, Gul told reporters: "We are here for meetings of the UN General Assembly. We are holding bilateral meetings about various issues. We are in constant touch with Foreign Minister and Deputy Prime Minister of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Serdar Denktas. This moment in time is very prominent for Cyprus. The UN is the place for a solution in Cyprus. There are steps taken by the UN Secretary-General on this topic recently."

    He indicated that trying to weaken United Nations' (UN) role in Cyprus contradicts the calls for a more powerful UN role in global issues.

    "The results of the referenda last year showed the reality in Cyprus. Prior to the referenda, the world thought that the Greek Cypriots were the ones who wished for unification in Cyprus. The results of the referenda woke up the world. Every one in the world now knows that it is the Greek Cypriots who do not want a compromise and solution in Cyprus," said Gul.

    Gul mentioned that the solution of the Cyprus problem lies within the UN. "The Greek Cypriots want to by-pass the UN. Turkey and the TRNC (occupied areas of the Republic of Cyprus) believe that a solution of the Cyprus issue rests with the UN.

    Turkey will continue to support the TRNC (occupied areas of the Republic of Cyprus) in preserving their welfare and interests. Turkey will always stand by the Turkish Cypriots as they continue to develop their society and economy," concluded Mr Gul.

    [02] How the Turkish Cypriot and Turkish press cover the developments regarding the counter declaration of the EU against Turkeys declaration for Cyprus

    Under the banner front page title Greek Cypriot obstinacy Turkish Cypriot daily KIBRIS newspaper (21.09.05) writes that in spite of the fact that an agreement was reached yesterday at EUs Committee of Permanent Representatives on the issue of the counter declaration of the EU regarding Turkeys declaration that it does not recognizes the Republic of Cyprus, the procedure for the approval of the text by the Council stopped upon the demand of the Greek Cypriots. Diplomatic sources said that the Greek Cypriots aimed at gaining time and extending the decision until the last moment.

    Turkish Cypriot daily AFRIKA newspaper (21.09.05) refers to the issue under the banner front page title The Turkish Cypriots have again been left unsupported!

    Under the banner front - page title Papadopoulos said no again, Turkish Cypriot daily HALKIN SESI newspaper (21.09.05) reports that not even the declaration, which is considered as unacceptable by Turkey and the pseudostate has satisfied President Papadopoulos, who shocked the EU by blocking the declaration which had been agreed upon the day before and it was expected to be approved yesterday.

    Under the title The declaration crisis has not ended, Turkish Cypriot daily YENI DUZEN newspaper (21.09.05) writes that there is no reference to the Annan Plan in the text of the declaration and that the EU ignored the will of the Turkish Cypriots. However, it adds, the Papadopoulos administration has not been satisfied with this and blocked the reconciliation on the declaration.

    Turkish Cypriot daily VOLKAN newspaper (21.09.05) refers to the issue under the title Papadopoulos reached the three targets that he determined on the one hand and blocked (the agreement) in order to get more.

    Turkish Cypriot daily ORTAM newspaper (21.09.05), under the title A maneuver by Tassos, writes that the counter declaration was not officially accepted yesterday because President Papadopoulos opposed to it at the last minute.

    Turkish Cypriot daily KIBRISLI newspaper (21.09.05) refers to the issue under the title There are no concessions! There is no bluffing! The crisis is a condition!

    Turkish Cypriot daily VATAN newspaper (21.09.05) writes that The EUs declaration on Cyprus has not been approved and refers to Turkish Foreign Minister Guls statement that the Greek Cypriots took the EU as their hostage!

    Turkish Cypriot daily GUNES newspaper (21.09.05) notes that the declaration has been blocked and that the Greek Cypriots considered as mild the draft which the Turkish Cypriots and Turkey did not like. The paper publishes also a statement by Mr Dervish Eroglu, chairman of the National Unity Party, who said that the agreed text at the COREPER could never be accepted!

    Turkish Cypriot daily CUMHURIYET newspaper (21.09.05) argues that the intransigent Papadopoulos administration upset Brussels and that the Greek Cypriots blocked the counter declaration.

    Turkish daily HURRIYET newspaper (21.09.05) writes that the Greek Cypriot administration blocked 'Cyprus Declaration' on which Britain announced that they reached agreement. Greek Cypriots demanded expressions which refer solution efforts within the scope of UN to be removed. Otherwise, they said, call for recognition does not have any meaning.

    Turkish daily MILLIYET newspaper (21.09.05) under the title Gul: It is always Turkey making concessions reports the following: The Turkish Foreign Minister and Deputy Prime Minister Abdullah Gul told the foreign Ministers of European Union (EU) member countries that, ''it is always Turkey making concession. This causes lack of appetite for people about the EU issue. We can not be insensitive to people's reactions. Gul expressed to the foreign ministers he met Turkey's concerns and sensitivities about the declaration and Negotiation Framework Document. It was reported that Gul said the Greek Cypriot side hampered Turkey's EU process and noted that the EU should think strategically on such issues.

    Turkish daily VATAN newspaper (21.09.05) writes the following under the title Last minute resistance of Greek Cypriots: The EU agreed in principle how they would respond to Turkey's declaration on non-recognition of Greek Cypriot administration. However, when Greek Cypriot administration did not approve the document until the last moment to pursue bargaining, the future of counter-declaration became unclear again. EU diplomats said Greek Cypriots want to keep open their options till the last moment.

    Turkish daily TURKIYE newspaper (21.09.05) writes that assessing the recent developments about the declaration the Turkish Foreign Minister Mr Gul said that the center for solution of the Cyprus question is the UN.

    Turkish daily ZAMAN newspaper (21.09.05) writes that Mr Gul said that the Greek Cypriots wanted to render the UN ineffective and adds: Gul, who made a statement prior to his meeting with Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (occupied areas of the Republic of Cyprus) foreign minister, Serdar Denktas, stated that the EU fell into the trap of the Greek Cypriots which is the ''source of insolubility in the island. Gul said he has conveyed his request to the UN Secretary - General calling him to play a more active role for the solution, stating that the Secretary - General had plans to start a new initiative.

    I/Ts.

    [03] The so-called Turkish Cypriot Handball Federation tries to find a way out to Europe

    Turkish Cypriot daily KIBRIS newspaper (21.09.05) reports that the chairman of the Turkish Handball Federation Mr Tarik Cengiz supported that the road is open for the so-called Turkish Cypriot Handball Federation (TCHF) to be an observer-member in the European handball federation.

    Mr Cengiz made these statements during a seminar for Referees and Observers, which was held in Ankara, Turkey between 16-18 of September.

    As the paper writes Mr Cengiz stated that both during a speech he delivered in the seminar and a meeting he held with the so-called Turkish Cypriot Handball Federation, that they will safeguard any kind of support for the TCHF and alleged that the road is open for it to become an observer-member in the European handball federation. He also stated that in order for this to be achieved, they are ready to do their duty.

    (C/S)

    [04] Emine Erk will participate in a conference in Canada

    Turkish Cypriot daily YENI DUZEN newspaper (21.09.05) reports that the lawyer Mrs Emine Erk and chairman of the Turkish Cypriot Human Rights Foundation was invited to participate in a conference to be held in Montreal, Canada, in order to talk about the situation in Cyprus after the referendum.

    Mrs Erk will deliver a speech on the 23rd of September. The title of her speech will be, The relations between the European Union and the Turkish Cypriots after the referendum. The influence of Law issues in the everyday life at the island.

    (C/S)

    [05] The so-called Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer evaluated his meetings in Brussels and commented on COREPER decision

    Turkish Cypriot daily KIBRIS newspaper (21.09.05) reported that so-called Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer, who is in Brussels for the opening of the new office of the Turkish Cypriot Chamber of Commerce, gave yesterday afternoon a speech during the inaugural ceremony there.

    Mr Soyer told guests that his government considered the opening of the Chambers Brussels office as a big step forward that will help strengthen existing ties between Turkish Cypriots and the European Union.

    Pointing to the Turkish Cypriots determination to help find a settlement to the Cyprus problem and be part of the European Union, Mr Soyer said the Turkish Cypriot side does support the European Union process as it is a great project aimed at achieving a solution and uniting the people of Cyprus.

    Underscoring the fact that Cyprus has been a source of problems between Turkey and Greece for years, Mr Soyer said a solution to the Cyprus problem will not only bring peace to Cyprus, but also contribute to the improvement of Turkish-Greek relations.

    I want to reiterate the Turkish Cypriots political will towards finding a solution to the Cyprus problem within the framework of the United Nations and on the basis of the Annan plan, he added.

    As for the Greek Cypriot sides EU membership, Mr Soyer claimed that this is an illegitimate situation, which is doomed to end sooner or later.

    Mr Soyer, in an exclusive interview to KIBRIS paper, said that coming to Brussels for the inauguration of the Turkish Cypriot Chamber of Commerce gave him the opportunity to hold several political contacts. He added that apart from political parties and civil organizations, the Turkish Cypriot media should also look into establishing themselves in Brussels.

    Asked to evaluate his Brussels meetings, Mr Soyer said many foreign delegation chiefs came to listen to Turkish Cypriot views at the inauguration ceremony. We also explained to them what the Turkish Cypriots do and think. We received very positive messages. I had also a nice meeting with Director of Acceding Countries of Enlargement Directorate General Timo Sumo and his team, as well as with officials from the French Embassy. We had the opportunity to convey our concerns and anxieties about Frances most recent statements. I am very satisfied with this meeting. I realised that they saw the issue from a balanced point of view. It was a positive evaluation. In addition to that, I attended this afternoon (yesterday afternoon) an open discussion organized by the ARI Group. Representatives from the Greek Cypriot side were also there. Our positive attitude towards the Greek Cypriot member of the delegation, who looked down on the Turkish Cypriots, was met with respect by the European officials, he added.

    Asked to comment on the decision of COREPER and Turkish Foreign Minister Abdullah Guls statement that EU must keep its pledge, Mr Soyer said: The decision of COREPER is really interesting. They said that they accept the Greek Cypriot side as the government from a legal point. This is a great novelty for the Greek Cypriot side. It is extremely important that it is considered the legitimate government from the legal point of view. But the point we want to stress is that from the international law point of view it is legal but it does not have democratic legitimacy.

    Mr Soyer also gave a press conference yesterday in Brussels. Commenting on the counter-declaration of COREPER, Mr Soyer strongly criticized the EUs Cyprus declaration emphasizing that linking Turkeys EU membership to the Cyprus question is unacceptable and added: The restrictions should be lifted simultaneously. When Turkish ports open to Greek Cypriot ships, then the port of Famagusta and the airport in Tymbou (in the occupied area of Cyprus) must be opened. The Financial Aid and the Direct Trade regulations that were prepared by the EU should also be implemented. He concluded that the EU must free itself from the captivity of the framework of its own principles.

    Moreover, the paper reported that Mr Soyer met yesterday in Brussels with the EU permanent representative of France Pierre Sellal. Mr Soyer told him that the Greek Cypriot side exploited the EU for its own interests by becoming an EU member without solving the Cyprus problem and added: One of the most important factors that will force the Greek Cypriots to sit at the negotiation table for the Cyprus settlement is the Direct Trade Regulation, and there is a decision that you have taken on this. This decision must be implemented. According to the paper, Mr Sellal gave his support to this issue.

    Mr Soyer will meet today with EU Enlargement Commissioner, Mr Olli Rehn.

    (DP)

    [06] Motherland Party leader explains his party´s low approval rating

    Istanbul VAKIT newspaper (19.09.05) publishes the following report on an interview with Motherland Party leader Erkan Mumcu by Necdet Yurteri under the title: "What ruined us was the ban on Koran courses":

    Motherland Party [ANAP] leader Erkan Mumcu has said that his party is paying the price of its support for the 28 February process. Mumcu said that hegemonic attempts to dominate religion are bound to be defeated. He reiterated his opposition to the headscarf ban, saying, "I have been pointing out for some ten years now that this ban is unjust and illegal."

    ANAP leader Erkan Mumcu answered VAKIT's questions. Mumcu disclosed his views about [the need for] his party to benefit from the ANAP's liberal experiences during late Turgut Ozal's term. He said that Mesut Yilmaz' ANAP, which became a government partner in the wake of the 28 February process and closed down Koran courses, was punished by the people. Mumcu said: "The ANAP is a political structure based on three fundamental freedoms. There have been times when it fought the status-quo as a ruling party for the sake of these freedoms. It was when the ANAP shifted from its anti-status quo and liberal line to a pro-status quo stance that the people punished this party. Now we are trying to restore the ANAP to its historical center and origin."

    On being asked how the [Turkish] state came from using religious values in the fight against terror by dropping religious messages from airplanes in the past to objecting to Koran courses today and what the reason for this paradox is and how it is to be overcome, Mumcu said that religion is the cement of a nation and that a community that does not have common religious values cannot become a nation. Mumcu pointed out that there is not a single instance of this in the history of humanity. He went on to say: "However, those who have turned the political system into a sort of class hegemony will try to exclude from the life of society all values that are opposed to this hegemony. History is full of examples of this. However, such attempts have always been denounced by the people and defeated. It is one thing to regard religion as the cement and spirit of social life and quite another to try to use it as a logistic tool."

    ANAP leader Erkan Mumcu also referred to the headscarf ban, saying, "I have been pointing out for some ten years that the headscarf ban is unjust and illegal."

    Erkan Mumcu also commented on the upsurge of terrorism and on efforts to use this for political gain. He said that those laying emphasis on nationalism should earn the title of nationalist. Mumcu said: "It is one thing for nationalist sentiments to rise and quite another to be able to offer political solutions that can satisfy that nationalist sensitivity. Nobody can become a nationalist by saying 'I am a nationalist.' In order to be a nationalist, one should do certain things to earn that title."

    ANAP leader Erkan Mumcu commented on the tensions between the Government and the Office of the President. He said that the tension is not a problem specific to today and that examples of it have been seen in the past, adding that the problem stems from the system. He said, "The source of this unease is the system. It will continue as long as the president is not elected by the people."


    [B] COMMENTARIES, EDITORIALS AND ANALYSIS

    [07] Columnist in AFRIKA criticizes the Turkish army for causing the fire at occupied Halevga

    Under the title They burned our Halevga as well!, Turkish Cypriot AFRIKA newspaper (21.09.05) publishes the following commentary in the column Voice of Silence, by Mehmet Levent:

    We had one Halevga We were seeking refugee there in order to avoid the noise and rumpus of the town, of the traffic torture, lack of electricity due to power cuts, lack of water and under cancer threat of the traffic accidents which turned the roads into blood rivers. And on top of it of the lies, slanders, quarrels, of the attempt to hide the realities from the people, of their ambition to stay on the power, of the opportunist stance of the politicians.

    In order to relax a little bit from the heavy stress, we used to go up not mountains, for having a barbecue and with a glass of beer or raki to enjoy the scant of the pine trees and the sage, inhale the oxygen and the clean air.

    We had a Halevga

    At the end they have burned it as well!. They have seared our mountains as they seared our hearts. They have scorched down the young saplings.

    This is not a natural calamity.

    This is a crime!

    It was an obvious disaster, which was shouting and declaring that it is coming!.

    A lot of discussions and debates were held about the poison created by the military exercises held in this island, in this small space.

    However, both army generals and the politicians, who are used to shun before these generals, turned a deaf ear to the people´s complaints, and concerns.

    And at the end, we were shocked by the news that Halevga has been burned down.

    In fact Halevga did not catch fire, it was burned as a result of arson! The clear proof of it is: The fire had started at the site of the military exercise.

    The Army´s refusal to allow the journalists to enter into the area where the fire was going on, and to the officials who wanted to help to put down the fire.

    Halevga did not catch fire

    They have burned it.

    For the sake of a military exercise, that is, for the sake of killing people, they have burned down thousands of young saplings! And turned them into ashes. In yesterday´s press pictures of the empty cases of cannon shells and cardriges were published.

    The cannon shells that shout; `We have burned down Halevga!

    The ministers who visited the site, refused to answer the questions put to them by journalists regarding the reasons of the fire.

    What could they have said? Should they have said, the reason is the military exercise?

    It needs guts to say that.

    [08] Commentary in the New Anatolian argues that the PKK is coming to an end

    Ankara The New Anatolian newspaper (20.09.05) publishes the following article by Onder Aytac and Emre Uslu under the title: "Rethinking solution for the Kurdish question":

    The time of Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) terror is coming to an end. Indeed, Iraqi President Jalal Talabani and Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) leader Massoud Barzani's recent talks about the situation in Iraq in which both figures underlined the fear of possible Turkish intervention into northern Iraq to eliminate the PKK, and growing concern raised by U.S. officials, and their frequent visits to Turkey to talk about possible actions against this organization are ringing alarm bells in the Kandil mountains. In response to these developments, PKK head militant in northern Iraq Murat Karayilan threatened Turkey with an intensified terror campaign and called on PKK leaders to prepare for possible assassinations and bombings.

    However, Turkey's international efforts to put an end to the PKK are not enough to solve the Kurdish question. Turkish officials should prepare themselves for the aftermath of the PKK. Yet, neither the Justice and Development Party (JDP) government nor the security establishment appears ready to deal with this case. They pretend as if they were ready to deal with the issue. What's even worse, the Turkish and Kurdish communities are being forced into a possible confrontation and the boundaries between the two communities are becoming increasingly visible, now more than ever.

    Now the question is what steps should the government have taken to sidestep this issue. When asked this question, a retired CIA official, who worked extensively on Turkey in the past and is still actively involved with Turkish issues in the U.S., framed the question in the following way:

    "The problem to be solved right now is methodology rather than substance. Clearly the government must propose a formula that is generous enough to the Kurds to undercut the appeal of the PKK, yet does not go so far as to alienate its voting constituency. I think we're a long way from the point where it would be feasible to make such a comprehensive gesture. A lot of ground has to be prepared in advance. Nor is it clear what such a formula ought to include. Time is needed to determine what might work and prepare public opinion to accept it.

    "The right timing for such a proposal might well be after the next general elections, when Erdogan and his colleagues will, I presume, have a fresh popular mandate. In the meantime, extensive meetings with Turkish and Kurdish civic leaders, particularly on the local level, and visits to affected communities might be useful to identify the parameters of an acceptable solution and prepare public opinion to accept it. In keeping with your very sharp observation that the Democratic People's Party (DEHAP)/PKK are attempting to communicate with a European audience, consulting European social scientists might be a very effective ploy."

    We're aware of the fact that many Turks as well as the nationalist Kurds will be sceptical about these suggestions, but we think that it's worthwhile to pay attention to them. We believe that, along with the reorganization of the security bureaucracy in the region, civic initiatives, that should have no relation to the PKK by any means, are the best possible option for a negotiated solution since they will underline the communication between the two communities that has been broken for some time.

    Creating an environment of dialogue in a suitable place, such as Kizilcahamam or another place far away from the media's attention, and organizing three separate groups from representatives of academics (could be extended to the international level), civic leaders and intellectuals of differing ideological origin could be the best way to start. Such an initiative could reinvigorate hope and provide a new perspective for the government to contemplate the best possible policies to implement toward a solution to the problem.

    In the region itself, due to the longstanding conflict and great losses, people are desperately longing for a solution. Nonetheless, significant number of Kurdish people, especially those who suffered from the terror directly, are sceptical about state officials. Therefore, state-run initiatives may not receive warm welcome. For this reason, empowering local leaders to work out a solution to the problem may ease the tensions and reinstate the trust between the two communities.

    The biggest obstacle to such an initiative, nevertheless, is the security culture of the state security agencies and the way these organizations have been structured over the last three decades. As a result of the protracted conflict with the PKK, the security agencies, especially the military, have internalized a culture which was codified based on suspicion towards the people in the region. This in turn sparked a counter-feeling among the local society and as a result they are hesitant in their attitudes toward the security bureaucracy, if not hateful. In addition, among the state bureaucracy, security officials are the ones who are the only true outsiders in the region. The rest of the local bureaucrats and government officials are mainly from within the same region. Thus, the security personnel feel more alienated than other parts of the state apparatus in the region, which in turn feeds an exclusivist cult culture and the elevation of nationalist/Turkified feelings and reactions within the security agencies. For instance, many of the security agencies put nationalist songs on their phone lines when one is waiting on hold, which may easily be perceived as an agitating element by the local citizens.

    Henceforward, the government should take this issue seriously and set up intensive training programs for civil and security personnel to inform them about the peculiarities of the region. In these programs, psychologists, sociologists, social scientists, and experts from related fields should train officers in every angle of the social life to erode the remnants of martial-law-era attitudes.

    In addition, During the martial law period over the last two decades, the security agencies had free reign in the region, which was most visibly observed when it came to issues related to limiting human rights, or being accountable for their actions. These attitudes still prevail among the staff of the security agencies, and they claim their "rights" to fight against terror. One should nonetheless admit that despite its being ill-equipped, receiving unsatisfactory support from the government as well as the media, and getting limited reinforcement from its own directorate, the police in the region are capable of adapting to new rules and regulations more than any other security agency. Thus the police in the region should have a more active role in the transition of society.

    Moreover, the massive immigration into the cities changed the dynamics of security policies. Whereas before the 1990s, the mountains and rural areas were more preferable to the PKK, nowadays the cities are becoming the center for massive demonstration campaigns by the organization. Nevertheless, the Turkish security establishment has failed to reorganize itself in response to this transformation. In the cities, military units are still active, and sometimes override police operations. But the fact that military officers were not trained for this type of terrorism raises serious questions as to their ability to cope with this new challenge. In order to overcome this new type of terrorism, authorities should back up the police to strengthen its position in the cities, and the military should lessen its presence. The recent successful police operations in the western cities are indicative of the fact that the police is capable of fighting effectively in southeastern cities as well.

    /SK


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