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Voice of America, 97-09-03

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] BOSNIA AID (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] BOSNIA ECON BY ART CHIMES (BANJA LUKA)
  • [03] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)
  • [04] LANDMINES TREATY (L-ONLY) BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)
  • [05] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [06] TURKEY / KURDS (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [07] U-S / BOSNIA (L) BY REBECCA MCMENAMIN (PENTAGON)
  • [08] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

  • [01] BOSNIA AID (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=9/3/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-219337
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE WORLD BANK RESIDENT REPRESENTATIVE IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA SAYS RECONSTRUCTION IN THAT FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC IS PROCEEDING AT A FASTER THAN EXPECTED PACE. THE WORLD BANK OFFICIAL SPOKE TO V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD AT OUR WASHINGTON STUDIO WEDNESDAY AS HE PREPARED TO HEAD BACK TO SARAJEVO.

    TEXT: MR. O'SULLIVAN SAYS THE WORLD BANK COORDINATED RECONSTRUCTION EFFORT IN BOSNIA IS THUS FAR A MAJOR SUCCESS. THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY HAS PLEDGED OVER ONE POINT TWO BILLION DOLLARS TO REBUILDING THE COUNTRY. OF THAT AMOUNT OVER 400 MILLION DOLLARS HAS ALREADY BEEN DISBURSED. THE MOST VISIBLE AID PROJECTS HAVE BEEN THE REBUILDING OF BRIDGES AND HELP FOR FARMERS.

    //FIRST O'SULLIVAN ACT//

    THE SIXTEEN PROJECTS WE HAVE UNDERWAY HAVE BASICALLY GONE MUCH FASTER THAN WE EXPECTED. WE HAVE SIX THOUSAND TRACTORS, FOR EXAMPLE, BEING DISTRIBUTED TO SIX-THOUSAND FARMERS. THAT MEANS THERE ARE SIX-THOUSAND CITIZENS AND THEIR FAMILIES-- WHICH PROBABLY ADDS UP TO 50-THOUSAND WHEN YOU TAKE IN THEIR FRIENDS AND THEIR RELATIONS--WHO HAVE A VERY VISIBLE OBJECT IN FRONT OF THEM AS A RESULT OF THIS PROJECT. SIMILAR THINGS FOR THE SIX-THOUSAND LIVESTOCK THAT HAVE BEEN DISTRIBUTED THROUGH BOSNIA-HERCEGOVINA.

    //END ACT//

    MAINLY BECAUSE OF THE AID EFFORT, THE BOSNIAN ECONOMY GREW BY AN ASTOUNDING 50 PERCENT LAST YEAR. HOWEVER ECONOMIC OUTPUT IS STILL ONLY ONE-THIRD OF ITS PRE-WAR LEVEL.

    NATIONAL UNITY, SAYS MR. O'SULLIVAN, REMAINS A DISTANT GOAL. DESPITE THE OPENING OF A CENTRAL BANK AND AGREEMENT ON A NEW CURRENCY THERE ARE STILL MULTIPLE CURRENCIES USED IN BOSNIA.

    //SECOND O'SULLIVAN ACT//

    WE STILL HAVE, PROBABLY, FIVE CURRENCIES OPERATING IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA. WE HAVE THE KUNA, THE DEUTSCHE MARK, THE DINAR, WE HAVE THE YUGOSLAV DINAR, AND WE ALSO HAVE THE SCRIP IN SRPSKA, THE CHECKS THAT ARE USED AS MONEY IN SOME CASES. WE HOPE THERE WILL SOON BE AGREEMENT ON THE DESIGN OF THE MARKA NOTES SO THAT THE NEW CURRENCY CAN BE USED.

    //END ACT//

    MR. O'SULLIVAN SAYS THE FIRST SIGNIFICANT WORLD BANK LOAN ($28M) TO BE USED IN REPUBLIKA SRPSKA IS LIKELY TO BE SIGNED EARLY NEXT WEEK. THAT INTEREST FREE LOAN WILL BE USED FOR REBUILDING SCHOOLS AND ROADS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/PT
    03-Sep-97 5:17 PM EDT (2117 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] BOSNIA ECON BY ART CHIMES (BANJA LUKA)

    DATE=9/3/97
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-37437
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: MORE THAN THREE AND A-HALF YEARS OF WAR IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA LEFT, AMONG OTHER THINGS, A LEGACY OF ECONOMIC DISLOCATION. THE ECONOMY IS BAD IN THE MUSLIM-CROAT FEDERATION, BUT IT'S EVEN WORSE IN THE SERB-CONTROLLED AREA, AS V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ART CHIMES FOUND OUT IN BANJA LUKA, THE SERB REPUBLIC'S LARGEST CITY.

    TEXT: THE CONTRAST IS DRAMATIC: SARAJEVO, THE NOMINAL CAPITAL OF THIS NOMINALLY UNIFIED COUNTRY, WAS HEAVILY DAMAGED DURING THE WAR. SINCE THE FIGHTING STOPPED, HOWEVER, MUCH OF SARAJEVO'S ECONOMIC ACTIVITY HAS BEEN FOCUSED ON REBUILDING. BUT IN BANJA LUKA, WHERE THERE IS NO PHYSICAL DEVASTATION, NEITHER IS THERE ANY REBUILDING. IN FACT, THERE IS LITTLE ECONOMIC ACTIVITY OF ANY KIND, EXCEPT FOR THE VENDORS THAT LINE THE CITY'S MAIN STREETS WAITING PATIENTLY FOR SOMEONE TO BUY THEIR CIGARETTES, CANDY AND OTHER SMALL ITEMS.

    STANDING ON THE SIDEWALK BESIDE HIS SMALL STOCK OF MERCHANDISE, OUT-OF-WORK SCHOOLTEACHER NIKO PARIS TALKS OF HAVING BECOME A REFUGEE, TRYING TO SURVIVE ON MEAGER EARNINGS.

    // PARISH ACTUALITY (SERBIAN; ESTAB AND FADE) //

    "I'M SUPPORTING FIVE MEMBERS OF MY FAMILY BY SELLING CIGARETTES AND OTHER SMALL THINGS," HE SAYS, "BUT IT'S REALLY DIFFICULT." MR. PARIS SAYS HE ALSO GETS A LITTLE MONEY FROM HIS FAMILY IN BELGRADE, BUT THEY HAVE THEIR OWN ECONOMIC PROBLEMS. "IF THE SITUATION CONTINUES," HE WARNS, "REFUGEES MAY STARVE TO DEATH."

    ANOTHER MAN, STANDING IN FRONT OF THE POST OFFICE, WOULD NOT SPEAK ON TAPE. ZIVKO KOVACEVIC SELLS THE USUAL CANDY AND CIGARETTES, PLUS TINY GLASSES OF BRANDY. HE WAS A LOCKSMITH BEFORE THE WAR, BUT NOW HE SAYS THERE'S NO WORK. AND HE SEES NO WAY OUT.

    A UNIVERSITY OF BANJA LUKA ECONOMICS PROFESSOR, HOWEVER, SEES ONE POSSIBLE WAY OUT. MALDEN IVANIC SAYS THE ECONOMY HERE IS IN BIG TROUBLE, WITH NOT ENOUGH TAXPAYERS SUPPORTING TOO MANY PENSIONERS AND GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES. THERE IS A LOT OF SMUGGLING OF CIGARETTES, TOBACCO, ALCOHOL AND GASOLINE. ALTOGETHER, ONLY ONE-THIRD OF THE ECONOMY GETS TAXED. HE DESCRIBES HOW BEFORE THE WAR A BROAD RANGE OF EXPORTS -- MAINLY TO THE EAST BLOC -- WERE THE MAINSTAY OF THE ECONOMY. PROFESSOR IVANIC SAYS THE EXPORT SECTOR HAS TO BE REBUILT, STARTING SMALL -- WITH SHOES, SAY, OR TEXTILES. BUT HE CAUTIONS THAT ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT MUST BE LINKED TO DEMOCRATIZATION.

    /// IVANIC ACTUALITY ///

    WE HAVE TO BE SUPPORTED POLITICALLY, TO REDUCE THE CUSTOMS, TO REDUCE THE TAXES ON OUR PRODUCTS. HOW CAN WE DO IT? ONLY IF WE HAVE POLITICAL SUPPORT. WHEN WILL WE HAVE POLITICAL SUPPORT? ONLY IF WE CHANGE THE POLITICAL LEADERS HERE, THE POLITICAL SITUATION HERE IN THE DIRECTION OF DEMOCRATIZATION. AND THAT IS THE KEY PROBLEM FOR THIS WHOLE SITUATION HERE.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    BECAUSE OF THE DISMAL PROSPECTS FOR RECOVERY, IT'S NOT SURPRISING TO MEET AN AMBITIOUS YOUNG MAN WHO PLANS ON LEAVING BANJA LUKA AS SOON AS HE CAN. IGOR JAKOVLJEVIC IS 23 YEARS OLD, AN ENGINEERING STUDENT WHO IS ALSO TALENTED AT LANGUAGES. HE SAYS HE PLANS TO LEAVE BOSNIA AS SOON AS HE GETS HIS DEGREE. I ASKED HIM IF IT HURT THE COUNTRY WHEN PEOPLE LIKE HIM GET OUT?

    /// JAKOVLJEVIC ACTUALITY ///

    WELL DEFINITELY. BUT REALLY, WHY SACRIFICE YOURSELF? I THINK I'LL BE ABLE TO HELP MY COUNTRY MORE WHEN I HAVE SOMETHING FOR MYSELF, WHEN I EARN SOME MONEY, THEN I'LL BE IN A POSITION TO HELP MY COUNTRY MORE THAN IF I STAY HERE AND MAKE NO MONEY AND BE IN POVERTY LIKE THE REST OF THE PEOPLE. IN FIVE TO 10 YEARS I'LL BE ABLE TO INVEST THE MONEY THAT I EARN HERE IN THESE AREAS, AND PERHAPS TO SMALL ENTERPRISES.

    /// END ACTUALITY ///

    THE BOSNIAN ECONOMY HAS OTHER TROUBLES AS WELL. THE DE FACTO NATIONAL CURRENCY IS THE GERMAN MARK. THE BANKING SYSTEM OPERATES ON ONLY THE MOST RUDIMENTARY LEVEL. PRIVATIZATION HAS NOT BEEN VERY EFFECTIVE. AND AMONG TOO MANY PEOPLE, WITH TENSIONS HIGH AND THE POSSIBILITY OF ANOTHER WAR IF NATO TROOPS LEAVE ON SCHEDULE NEXT YEAR, THERE SEEMS LITTLE CONFIDENCE THAT THINGS WILL GET MUCH BETTER SOON. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ART/PCF/KL
    03-Sep-97 10:58 AM EDT (1458 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)

    DATE=9/3/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-219326
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCKS TURNED IN A MIXED PERFORMANCE ON THE MAIN MARKETS OF WESTERN EUROPE WEDNESDAY -- THIS AFTER PRICES SOARED ON TUESDAY. PAUL FRANCUCH HAS THE CLOSING FIGURES FROM OUR OFFICES IN LONDON.

    TEXT: IT WAS HARD FOR THE BIG EURO BOURSES TO KEEP UP THE MOMENTUM SET EARLIER IN THE WEEK, BUT THE EARLY TRADING DAY IN FRANKFURT RESULTED IN A NICE CLOSING ADVANCE OF MORE THAN 56 POINTS ON THE "DAX 30" INDEX. HERE IN LONDON, THE KEY "FINANCIAL TIMES" 100 INDEX OF BRITISH STOCKS ADDED ALMOST 25 POINTS AT THE CLOSE. BUT TUESDAY'S BIG JUMP ON THE PARIS "CAC 40" WAS MET WITH PROFIT-TAKING WEDNESDAY, AND THAT INDEX ENDED UP CLOSING DOWN JUST OVER THREE POINTS FOR THE DAY.

    ON THE EUROPEAN MONEY MARKETS, THE DOLLAR PUT IN A MIXED PERFORMANCE AS WELL, GIVING BACK SOME OF ITS GAINS AGAINST THE MARK, LOSING ABOUT A PFENNIG AND A HALF. BUT AGAINST THE POUND, THE DOLLAR GAINED A HALF CENT.

    GOLD WEDNESDAY CLOSED VIRTUALLY UNCHANGED IN VALUE IN THE LONDON FIX. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PCF/KL
    03-Sep-97 2:14 PM EDT (1814 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] LANDMINES TREATY (L-ONLY) BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)

    DATE=9/3/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-219305
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: DELEGATES TO AN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE IN OSLO, NORWAY ARE CONTINUING WORK ON A TREATY TO BAN LANDMINES. AS V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ANDRE DE NESNERA REPORTS FROM LONDON, A U-S PROPOSAL HAS BEEN STRONGLY CRITICIZED BY DELEGATES.

    TEXT: THE OSLO CONFERENCE IS MEANT TO BUILD ON A DECLARATION SIGNED LAST JUNE IN BRUSSELS BY ABOUT 100 COUNTRIES COMMITTING THEM TO A BAN ON LANDMINES. DELEGATES IN THE NORWEGIAN CITY ARE TRYING TO FINALIZE A TREATY BANNING THE PRODUCTION, SALE AND USE OF ANTI-PERSONNEL LANDMINES.

    IF THEY AGREE ON A PACT AT THE END OF THE THREE-WEEK CONFERENCE, THE ACCORD WILL BE SIGNED IN CANADA'S CAPITAL, OTTAWA, NEXT DECEMBER.

    HOWEVER A PROPOSAL BY THE UNITED STATES ASKING FOR AN EXEMPTION TO PRESERVE THE MINEFIELDS SEPARATING THE TWO KOREAS HAS BEEN STRONGLY OPPOSED BY MANY DELEGATES. ONLY JAPAN AND POLAND AGREE WITH THE UNITED STATES DELEGATION WHICH ARGUES THE SITUATION BETWEEN SOUTH AND NORTH KOREA IS UNIQUE -- AND THE EXEMPTION IS NECESSARY TO FULFILL WASHINGTON'S DEFENSE COMMITMENTS THERE.

    TIM CARSTAIRS IS AN OFFICIAL WITH A LEADING MINE-CLEARING AGENCY BRITAIN'S "MINE ADVISORY GROUP." SPEAKING FROM OSLO WHERE HE IS ATTENDING THE CONFERENCE AS AN OBSERVER, MR. CARSTAIRS SAYS THE U-S PROPOSAL MAY HAVE A VERY NEGATIVE, SNOWBALL EFFECT.

    /// CARSTAIRS ACT ///

    IMMEDIATELY AFTER THEY MADE THE STATEMENT, A WHOLE HOST OF OTHER COUNTRIES -- MOSTLY FAR SMALLER COUNTRIES -- BEGAN TO VOICE THEIR OWN SECURITY CONCERNS. BASICALLY, THE UNITED STATES HAS OPENED THE DOOR TO THE SLIPPERY SLOPE, SHALL WE SAY. OBVIOUSLY, THIS KIND OF SEEKING FOR AN EXCEPTION FOR -- AFTER ALL THE WORLD'S MAJOR POWER - WOULD PROBABLY DESTROY THE SUBSTANTIVE PART OF THE TREATY. WE NEED TO CREATE A VERY STRONG, INTERNATIONAL LEGAL NORM. WE SHOULD NOT BE THINKING ABOUT WEAKENING IT -- CERTAINLY AT THIS STAGE.

    /// END ACT ///

    A UNITED NATIONS REPORT PUBLISHED EARLIER THIS YEAR SAID THERE ARE MORE THAN 110-MILLION LANDMINES OF VARIOUS TYPES HIDDEN IN AT LEAST 68 COUNTRIES. EVERY YEAR, ABOUT 26-THOUSAND CIVILIAN CASUALTIES OCCUR AS A RESULT OF LANDMINES.

    MR. CARSTAIRS SAYS THERE IS A GENUINE FEELING AMONG MANY DELEGATES AT THE OSLO CONFERENCE THAT LANDMINES SHOULD BE OUTLAWED.

    /// 2ND CARSTAIRS ACT ///

    THIS IS A PROCESS OF LIKE-MINDED COUNTRIES, COUNTRIES WHO DO WANT TO MAKE A DIFFERENCE. THIS IS WHERE THE U-S PARTICIPATION IS VERY STRANGE. ON THE ONE HAND THEY AGREE COMPLETELY IN THE PRINCIPLE OF A TOTAL BAN. AND YET THEY THEN ASK FOR EXCEPTIONS AND EXEMPTIONS TO SUIT THEIR OWN PURPOSES. SO A VERY STRANGE, ALMOST HYPOCRITICAL POINT THERE.

    /// END ACT ///

    AT THE OPENING OF THE CONFERENCE EARLIER THIS WEEK, DELEGATES OBSERVED A MINUTE OF SILENCE IN HONOR OF DIANA, PRINCESS OF WALES WHO CAMPAIGNED VIGOROUSLY TO BAN LANDMINES. A FRENCH OFFICIAL ADDRESSING THE GATHERING, SAID ANY ACCORD REACHED SHOULD BE NAMED "THE PRINCESS DIANA TREATY." (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/JWH/KL
    03-Sep-97 9:05 AM EDT (1305 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=9/3/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-219336
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE UP TODAY (WEDNESDAY) AS BUYING INTEREST CONTINUED AFTER TUESDAY'S BIG RALLY. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT 78 HUNDRED 94, UP 14 POINTS. THE MORE INCLUSIVE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT 927, UP A FRACTION OF ONE POINT.

    SOME ANALYSTS WERE SURPRISED THERE WAS NOT SOME PROFIT TAKING THE DAY AFTER THE INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE POSTED ITS LARGEST SINGLE-DAY POINT RISE IN HISTORY. BUT OPTIMISM CONTINUED ON WALL STREET.

    AN INDEX DESIGNED TO FORECAST FUTURE CONDITIONS POINTED TO CONTINUED STEADY BUT MODEST ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE UNITED STATES.

    THE COMMERCE DEPARTMENT REPORTED THAT CONSTRUCTION SPENDING IN THE UNITED STATES JUMPED BY ONE-HALF PERCENT IN JULY, STRONGER THAN ANALYSTS HAD EXPECTED.

    /// REST OPT FOR LONG ///

    THE STOCK OF THE GATEWAY COMPUTER COMPANY LOST ABOUT 10 PERCENT AFTER GATEWAY ANNOUNCED THAT THIRD-QUARTER PROFITS WILL FALL BELOW EXPECTATIONS.

    ZYTEC AND COMPUTER PRODUCTS, TWO COMPANIES WHICH PRODUCE POWER SUPPLY UNITS WILL MERGE IN A STOCK DEAL WORTH ALMOST 500 MILLION DOLLARS.

    THE DAEWOO CORPORATION OF SOUTH KOREAN WILL INVEST ONE POINT THREE BILLION DOLLARS IN A JOINT AUTO MAKING VENTURE IN UKRAINE. IT WILL BE THE LARGEST SINGLE FOREIGN INVESTMENT IN UKRAINE.

    FOUR OF THE FIVE MAJOR AMERICAN TELEVISION NETWORKS SAY THEY WILL RUN NO COMMERCIALS DURING THE LIVE COVERAGE SATURDAY OF PRINCESS DIANA'S FUNERAL. ONLY THE A-B-C TELEVISION NETWORK SAID IT HAS STILL NOT DECIDED WHETHER TO RUN COMMERCIALS. IT IS ESTIMATED THAT TWO AND ONE-HALF BILLION PEOPLE AROUND THE WORLD WILL WATCH THE FUNERAL ON TELEVISION.(SIGNED)
    NEB/NY/BA/PT
    03-Sep-97 5:04 PM EDT (2104 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] TURKEY / KURDS (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=9/3/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-219317
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TURKISH POLICE BEAT AND DETAINED 18 MEMBERS OF AN INTERNATIONAL PEACE MISSION AT AN ISTANBUL HOTEL WEDNESDAY AS THEY TRIED TO HOLD A NEWS CONFERENCE CALLING FOR AN END TO HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES. AS AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM TURKEY, A BRITISH DIPLOMAT WAS ALSO DETAINED AND LATER RELEASED DURING THE INCIDENT.

    TEXT: EYEWITNESSES SAID HUNDREDS OF TURKISH RIOT POLICE SMASHED THEIR WAY INTO THE "MIM" HOTEL IN ISTANBUL WHERE A LARGE GROUP OF PEACE ACTIVISTS HAD GATHERED FOR A PRESS CONFERENCE. THE POLICE BEAT AND ARRESTED AT LEAST 18 ACTIVISTS. LOCAL MEDIA REPORTS THE GROUP INCLUDED A BRITISH CITIZEN, 11 GERMANS, AND TWO SPANIARDS.

    A BRITISH EMBASSY SPOKESMAN CONFIRMED THAT A BRITISH DIPLOMAT, NEIL FRAPE, WAS AMONG THOSE DETAINED. THE DIPLOMAT IDENTIFIED HIMSELF TO POLICE AS A MEMBER OF THE BRITISH CONSULATE IN ISTANBUL BUT WAS ARRESTED ALL THE SAME. THE BRITISH SPOKESMAN DESCRIBED THE INCIDENT AS A GROSS ABUSE OF THE DIPLOMAT'S STATUS IN TURKEY.

    MANY WESTERN DIPLOMATS AGREE THAT WEDNESDAY'S EVENTS WILL NOT HELP IMPROVE WHAT SOME DESCRIBE AS TURKEY'S APPALLING HUMAN RIGHTS RECORD.

    THE PEACE MISSION WAS CALLING FOR AN END TO THE 13-YEAR-LONG CONFLICT BETWEEN THE TURKISH ARMY AND THE OUTLAWED KURDISTAN WORKERS PARTY, OR P-K-K. THE MISSION HAD EARLIER TRIED TO HOLD A PEACE RALLY IN THE MAINLY KURDISH PROVINCE OF DIYARBAKAR. BUT TURKISH SECURITY FORCES PREVENTED THE RALLY FROM TAKING PLACE AND ARRESTED MORE THAN 600 PEOPLE.

    TURKISH OFFICIALS SAY THE PROPOSED PEACE RALLY IS JUST ANOTHER PROPAGANDA PLOY ORCHESTRATED BY THE P-K-K. OFFICIALS FURTHER INSIST THE REBEL GROUP FINANCED THE TURKISH TRAVEL BY THE FOREIGN PEACE ACTIVISTS -- A CLAIM THAT THE EUROPEAN GROUP, NUMBERING AROUND 50, HAS VIGOROUSLY DENIED.

    MANY OF THE PEACE ACTIVISTS -- BOTH TURKISH AND FOREIGN -- ADVOCATE DIRECT NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT AND THE P-K-K. BUT THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT SAYS IT WILL NEVER TALK TO WHAT IT TERMS A "TERRORISTS GROUP." (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/PCF/RRM
    03-Sep-97 11:52 AM EDT (1552 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] U-S / BOSNIA (L) BY REBECCA MCMENAMIN (PENTAGON)

    DATE=9/3/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-219327
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: NATO'S TOP COMMANDER IN EUROPE, GENERAL WESLEY CLARK, IS STEPPING UP THE RHETORIC AGAINST THE BOSNIAN SERB HARD-LINERS WHO ARE BLOCKING PEACE EFFORTS IN THE BALKANS. V-O-A'S REBECCA MCMENAMIN REPORTS FROM THE PENTAGON THAT GENERAL CLARK HAS WARNED THAT NATO IS PREPARED TO USE LETHAL FORCE TO ENFORCE THE DAYTON ACCORDS AND CONTINUE ITS MISSION.

    TEXT: GENERAL WESLEY CLARK HAS ISSUED A STERN WARNING THAT VIOLATERS OF THE DAYTON PEACE ACCORDS WILL SUFFER THE CONSEQUENCES OF NATO ACTION. HE MADE CLEAR THERE IS GROWING FRUSTRATION WITH BOSNIAN SERB HARD-LINERS WHO HAVE RECENTLY CLASHED WITH NATO FORCES IN THE REGION.

    // CLARK ACT //

    I WILL TELL YOU THAT THE INSTANCES THAT YOU'VE SEEN RECENTLY GIVE ME GREAT CAUSE FOR CONCERN BECAUSE THEY BETRAY A PATTERN BY SOME PEOPLE WHO WILL ATTEMPT TO DISSUADE S-FOR (NATO'S STABILIZATION FORCE) FROM ACCOMPLISHING ITS MISSION. WE WILL NOT BE DETERRED BY MOB VIOLENCE OR THREATS OF MOB VIOLENCE. WE WILL USE ALL MEANS NECESSARY, INCLUDING LETHAL MEANS, TO PROTECT OUR FORCES AND TO CONTINUE OUR MISSION.

    // END ACT //

    GENERAL CLARK, WHO TOOK OVER AS SUPREME ALLIED COMMANDER IN EUROPE IN JULY, ALSO MADE A DIRECT APPEAL TO FORMER BOSNIAN SERB LEADER RADOVAN KARADZIC TO TURN HIMSELF INTO THE HAGUE TO FACE CHARGES OF WAR CRIMES.

    U-S DEFENSE OFFICIALS REFUSE TO SPECULATE WHETHER THERE IS A PLAN TO ARREST MR. KARADZIC. BUT GENERAL CLARK MADE CLEAR NATO'S PATIENCE WITH HIM IS WEARING THIN.

    IN ADDITION, SUPPORT APPEARS TO BE GROWING IN THE U-S CONGRESS FOR THE USE OF MILITARY FORCE TO ROUND UP WAR CRIMES SUSPECTS. SENATOR JOSEPH BIDEN SAYS HE IS CONVINCED SUCH AN OPERATION WOULD BE SUCCESSFUL.

    // BIDEN ACT //

    AFTER CONVERSATIONS WITH LEADING AMERICAN MILITARY OFFICERS IN BOSNIA, I AM CONFIDENT THAT SUCH AN OPERATION IS FEASIBLE. NO AMERICAN WISHES CASUALTIES TO OCCUR, BUT IF ALL OTHER MEANS FAIL, FORCE MUST BE EMPLOYED AND RISKS TAKEN IN ORDER TO ARREST THESE WAR CRIMINALS. I'M CONFIDENT THAT THE OPPORTUNITY WILL PRESENT ITSELF AND IF IT IS SEIZED UPON WILL SUCCEED.

    // END ACT //

    NATO TROOPS ALREADY HAVE BEGUN TAKING MORE AGGRESSIVE ACTION TO SUPPORT THOSE WHO BACK THE PEACE PROCESS -- THIS, BEFORE LOCAL ELECTIONS IN BOSNIA SCHEDULED FOR SEPTEMBER 13TH AND 14TH. GENERAL CLARK SAYS NATO IS UNDERTAKING A FULL-SCALE MILITARY EFFORT TO ENSURE THE ELECTIONS ARE A SUCCESS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RJM/RRM
    03-Sep-97 2:41 PM EDT (1841 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] WEDNESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=09/03/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10328
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-D-S-T ON WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 3. //

    INTRO: THE REVERBERATIONS OF PRINCESS DIANA'S DEATH IN A PARIS AUTO ACCIDENT EARLY SUNDAY CONTINUE TO FIND A PROMINENT PLACE AMONG THE EDITORIALS COLUMNS OF THE NATION'S DAILY PAPERS. THERE ARE ALSO COMMENTS ABOUT MEXICO'S EMERGING DEMOCRACY; THE PLIGHT OF NORTH KOREA, THE B-2'S INABILITY TO FUNCTION WELL IN THE RAIN; THE ISSUE OF CAMPAIGN REFORM, AND THE CIVIL WAR IN ALGERIA.

    NOW HERE IS _______________ WITH A CLOSER LOOK IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE TWO MAIN THEMES IN EDITORIALS CONCERNING THE PRINCESS' FATAL ACCIDENT ARE THE IDEA THAT DRUNK DRIVING CAN TAKE EVEN THE LIVES OF CELEBRITIES, JUST AS IT KILLS MANY COMMON PEOPLE; AND THAT THE PAPARAZZI FREE-LANCE PHOTOGRAPHERS WHO HOUND CELEBRITIES ARE MOTIVATED AND FINANCED BY THE PUBLIC'S INSATIABLE INTEREST IN PICTURES AND GOSSIP ABOUT PEOPLE LIKE PRINCESS DIANA. "THE NEW YORK POST" CALLS THE PARIS CRASH "AN ALL-TOO-PREVENTABLE ACCIDENT."

    VOICE: "IT IS HARD TO IMAGINE A MORE POTENTIALLY LETHAL COMBINATION THAN ALCOHOL, A POWERFUL AUTOMOBILE AND THE SUPER-CHARGED ATMOSPHERE THAT MUST HAVE ATTENDED THE DEPARTURE OF PRINCESS DIANA AND HER LOVER FROM THE RITZ HOTEL. ADD TO THE MIX THAT 'YOU-CAN'T-CATCH-ME' CHALLENGE REPORTEDLY TOSSED OUT TO THE PAPARAZZI BY THE LIMO'S DRIVER AND THE CRASH SEEMS TO HAVE BEEN, IF NOT INEVITABLE, NOT AT ALL UNLIKELY. .... DIANA AND DODI MIGHT BE ALIVE TODAY HAD THEIR DRIVER BEEN SOBER AND NOT SPEEDING THROUGH CITY STREETS AT MORE THAN 160 KILOMETERS PER HOUR, ENDANGERING NOT ONLY HIS PASSENGERS BUT EVERYONE ELSE ON THE HIGHWAY."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: ON LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK, "NEWSDAY" IS CONCERNED ABOUT THE ROLE PLAYED BY THE PHOTOGRAPHERS WHO FOLLOWED DIANA'S EVERY MOVE.

    VOICE: "..... TWO THINGS ALREADY ARE CLEAR: DIANA FELT HARASSED BY THE PAPARAZZI'S PRYING LENSES AND WAS TRYING TO FLEE THEIR SCRUTINY. AND THE PUBLIC IS REPELLED BY THE IDEA THAT A BAND OF RAPACIOUS CELEBRITY PHOTOGRAPHERS ... MIGHT HAVE HAD A HAND IN THE PRINCESS' GHASTLY DEATH .... BUT WHO AMONG THOSE NOW EXPRESSING REVULSION AT THE PAPARAZZI'S TACTICS CLOSED THEIR EYES TO THE SUNNIER IMAGES OF A SCANTILY CLAD DIANA YACHTING THROUGH THE MEDITERRANEAN WITH HER BEAU? .... THE PUBLIC'S UNQUENCHABLE THIRST FOR PICTURES AND GOSSIP ABOUT CELEBRITIES IS WHAT HAS GIVEN RISE TO THE CURRENT MEDIA OBSESSION WITH THEM."

    TEXT: "USA TODAY" IN ITS LEAD EDITORIAL SUGGESTS THAT "MORE LAWS WON'T STOP PHOTOGRAPHERS RUN AMOK," WHILE "THE WALL STREET JOURNAL" WONDERS AT THE HYPOCRISY OF THE U-S MEDIA:

    VOICE: "IS IT POSSIBLE THAT THERE IS ANY NORMAL PERSON OUT THERE WHO BY NOW IS NOT GROSSED OUT [DISGUSTED] AND SICKENED BY TELEVISION'S COVERAGE OF PRINCESS DIANA'S DEATH? IT IS REMARKABLE TO SEE A PROFESSIONAL MIND-SET THAT STUDIOUSLY REPORTS THE SINS OF THE TABLOIDS [SENSATIONAL NEWSPAPERS] AND PAPARAZZI EVEN AS IT SHOVES ITS OWN SUMP PUMPS [USED TO SUCK UP FLOOD WATERS] DEEP INTO THE LIFE OF LADY DIANA AND RUNS THE OPEN HOSES [THAT DUMP THE WATERS OUT, CONTINUING THE ANALOGY: "FROM THE SUMP PUMPS"] ONTO THE NATION'S LIVING ROOM FLOORS."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: TURNING TO OTHER NEWS, THE EMERGING OPPOSITION WHICH NOW CONTROLS MEXICO'S LOWER HOUSE OF CONGRESS IS COMING IN FOR SOME COMMENT FROM "THE LOS ANGELES TIMES" WHICH CALLS IT "A NEW POLITICAL ERA."

    VOICE: "THE SEPARATION OF POWERS BETWEEN EXECUTIVE AND LEGISLATIVE BRANCHES DEFINES DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT, AND MONDAY IT CAME TO MEXICO IN A NEW AND UNCHARTED ERA. THE PRESIDENT DELIVERED HIS STATE OF THE UNION SPEECH TO A CONGRESS IN WHICH NO PARTY HOLD A MAJORITY. AND FOR THE FIRST TIME EVER, A MEMBER OF THE OPPOSITION ROSE IN RESPONSE. ..... THE PATH TO THE FUTURE IS FILLED WITH UNCERTAINTY, BUT THERE IS CAUSE FOR OPTIMISM NONETHELESS. MEXICO HAS CROSSED THE POLITICAL BRIDGE ..... THIS ROAD, FINALLY, IS THE ONE WORTH TAKING."

    TEXT: AND IN BALTIMORE, THE SUN ADDS:

    VOICE: "MEXICO MAY YET SHOW OTHER NATIONS HOW TO MOVE FROM ONE-PARTY RULE TO POWER-SHARING BY EVOLUTION, NOT REVOLUTION."

    TEXT: ON THE OTHER THE WORLD, THE PLIGHT OF NORTH KOREA IS AGAIN DRAWING ATTENTION FROM "THE BOSTON GLOBE", WHICH SAYS 49 YEARS OF CENTRALIZED, STATE CONTROLLED AGRICULTURE BY THE LATE KIM IL SUNG IS THE ROOT CAUSE OF TODAY'S PROBLEMS.

    VOICE: "THE NORTH KOREAN DROUGHT IS REAL, BUT IF THAT NATION POSSESSED A DECENTRALIZED, FREE-MARKET ECONOMY, BUSINESSES WOULD HAVE GENERATED ENOUGH MONEY FROM EXPORTS TO BUY FOOD ON THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET, AS SOUTH KOREA DOES. NORTH KOREA NEEDS FOREIGN FOOD AID TO PREVENT INNOCENT PEOPLE FROM STARVING. STILL, THE LONG-TERM SOLUTION TO ITS PLIGHT WILL NOT COME FROM ABROAD, BUT FROM A TRANSFORMATION OF ITS MALIGNANT GOVERNMENT."

    TEXT: NEWS THAT THE TWO-BILLION-DOLLAR-APIECE STEALTH BOMBER KNOWN AS THE B-2 CANNOT FLY IN RAIN BECAUSE THE WATER DAMAGES IT HIGH-TECH WINGS BRINGS THIS RESPONSE FROM "THE WASHINGTON POST".

    VOICE: "ONE BIG ISSUE FACING A RETURNING CONGRESS THIS WEEK IS WHETHER TO GIVE THE AIR FORCE NINE EXTRA B-2 BOMBERS. THE AIR FORCE DOESN'T WANT THEM, AND THE SENATE DOESN'T WANT TO PAY FOR THEM, BUT THE HOUSE HAS VOTED A 331-MILLION DOLLAR DOWN PAYMENT. .... IT'S HARD TO THINK OF A WORSE IDEA."

    TEXT: TODAY'S "NEW YORK TIMES" IS REMINDING THE RETURNING CONGRESS OF ANOTHER PRIORITY -- CAMPAIGN FINANCE REFORM.

    VOICE: "MANY LAWMAKERS WHO HAVE THRIVED BY THE SYSTEM WOULD LIKE THE PUBLIC TO BELIEVE ... THE CHANCES OF REFORMING IT ARE NIL. THAT IS NOT TRUE. .... REFORM LEGISLATION SPONSORED BY SENATORS JOHN MCCAIN OF ARIZONA AND RUSSELL FEINGOLD OF WISCONSIN IS BEING DRAFTED TO REFLECT THE CONCERNS OF LAWMAKERS AND GROUPS WHO MIGHT WELL GENERATE NEW MOMENTUM FOR THE CAUSE."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: BACK OVERSEAS, TODAY'S "WASHINGTON POST" SALUTES THE NEW LABOR GOVERNMENT IN BRITAIN IN ACCOMMODATING THE IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY INTO TALKS ON THE FUTURE OF NORTHERN IRELAND.

    VOICE: "THE DISPUTE IN NORTHERN IRELAND .... SPRINGS FROM THE VULNERABILITY OF BOTH COMMUNITIES TO HISTORIC, LIFE-OR-DEATH PASSIONS OF IDENTITY. THE HOPEFULNESS BEING MUSTERED BY THE PATRONS OF WHAT IS PREMATURELY CALLED A 'PEACE PROCESS' .... CANNOT BE ALLOWED TO OBSCURE A VIEW OF THE HARD REALITIES."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: LASTLY, ON THE GROWING CARNAGE IN ALGERIA, AS THAT NORTH AFRICAN NATION FIGHTS AGAINST A FUNDAMENTALIST ISLAMIC UNDERGROUND, ELICITS THIS FROM "THE NEW YORK TIMES".

    VOICE: "THE LAST SEVEN DAYS HAVE BEEN THE MOST VIOLENT IN ALGERIA'S NEARLY SIX-YEAR-CIVIL WAR. THE GOVERNMENT REPORTS THAT NEARLY 400 CIVILIANS WERE MASSACRED ... BY THE ARMED ISLAMIC GROUP. THE REST OF THE WORLD HAS GONE ALONG WITH THE GOVERNMENT'S INSISTENCE THAT THE VIOLENCE IS THE BUSINESS OF ALGERIANS ONLY. BUT ... IT IS TIME FOR OTHERS NATIONS, ESPECIALLY FRANCE, TO USE THEIR INFLUENCE TO PRESS FOR TALKS."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: IN MAINE, THE "PORTLAND PRESS HERALD" IS EVEN MORE PESSIMISTIC ABOUT THE SITUATION.

    VOICE: "A GOVERNMENT-LED BLOODBATH MAY BE ABOUT TO OCCUR IN ALGERIA, RIVALING THE RECENT BUTCHERY OF INNOCENTS BY SUSPECTED ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISTS. HOW ELSE EXPLAIN THE GOVERNMENT'S PLACING THE FORMER LEADER OF A NOW-BANNED ISLAMIC GROUP UNDER HOUSE ARREST ON MONDAY? THIS WAS ONE DAY AFTER ABASSI MADANI HAD CALLED FOR DIALOGUE TO END THE FUNDAMENTALIST INSURGENCY THAT HAS CLAIMED MORE THAN 60-THOUSAND LIVES (-- A POPULATION ALMOST THE SIZE OF PORTLAND'S --) OVER 5 AND ONE-HALF-YEARS. .... IF THE GOVERNMENT IS BUILDING UP TO AN INDISCRIMINATE RETALIATORY SWEEP AGAINST SUSPECTED MILITANTS, WITH MORE INNOCENT PEOPLE BOUND TO BE AMONG THE VICTIMS, IT SHOULD FORGET IT. AS THE SHAH OF IRAN LEARNED TOO LATE, MAKING MARTYRS OF A WHOLE GENERATION OF PROTESTERS ONLY ENSURES THEIR RESISTANCE WILL NEVER CEASE. BETTER TO HOLD TO THE RULE OF LAW ...."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: WITH THAT PLEA TO ALGIERS -- AND EARLIER TO PARIS -- FOR REASON, WE CONCLUDE THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF COMMENT FROM SOME OF TODAY'S DAILY PAPERS.
    NEB/ANG/ MMK
    03-Sep-97 10:50 AM EDT (1450 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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