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Voice of America, 98-02-10

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] CENTRAM/EUROPE (L-ONLY) BY MICHAEL DRUDGE (SAN JOSE)
  • [02] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)
  • [03] EUROPE / SINGLE CURRENCY BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)
  • [04] FRANCE / IRAQ (L ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)
  • [05] IRAQ/KURDS (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)
  • [06] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)
  • [07] NATO COSTS (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (WASHINGTON)
  • [08] SENATE-NATO (L-ONLY) BY DAVID SWAN (CAPITOL HILL)
  • [09] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [10] TURKS / GERMANY BY KYLE KING (ESSEN)

  • [01] CENTRAM/EUROPE (L-ONLY) BY MICHAEL DRUDGE (SAN JOSE)

    DATE=2/10/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-226548
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: EUROPE HAS WARNED CENTRAL AMERICA TO ACCELERATE ECONOMIC INTEGRATION OR BE TRAMPLED IN THE GLOBALIZED MARKET PLACE. THE WARNING HAS COME AT A MEETING OF EUROPEAN AND CENTRAL AMERICAN FOREIGN MINISTERS, AND V-O-A'S MICHAEL DRUDGE IS THERE.

    TEXT: THE BLUNT MESSAGE WAS DELIVERED BY THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION, MANUEL MARIN OF SPAIN.

    ///INSERT MARIN SPANISH ACT AND FADE UNDER///

    MR. MARIN SAID IT WILL BE DIFFICULT IF NOT IMPOSSIBLE FOR CENTRAL AMERICA TO SURVIVE IN THE NEW ERA OF GLOBAL TRADING BLOCS IF THE REGION REMAINS DIVIDED INTO FIVE SMALL COUNTRIES WHERE STATE MONOPOLIES DOMINATE AND SHACKLE THE ECONOMIES. MR. MARIN SAID TIME IS RUNNING OUT FOR THE CENTRAL AMERICANS. HE SAID THE NEXT YEAR WILL WITNESS HECTIC TRADE TALKS BOTH WITHIN THE AMERICAN CONTINENT AND BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND MAJOR TRADING BLOCS IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE SUCH AS MERCOSUR AND THE ANDEAN COUNTRIES.

    THE ECONOMIES OF GUATEMALA, EL SALVADOR, HONDURAS, NICARAGUA AND COSTA RICA HAVE NEVER FULLY RECOVERED FROM THE EFFECTS OF CIVIL WARS IN THE 1980S THAT WRECKED THE REGION'S INFRASTRUCTURE AND SCARED AWAY INVESTORS. DURING THE 1990S, THERE HAS BEEN CONSTANT TALK OF MORE ECONOMIC COOPERATION BUT LITTLE TO SHOW FOR IT. POLITICAL INTEGRATION IS EVEN MORE DISTANT.

    THIS WEEK'S MEETING OF FOREIGN MINISTERS IN SAN JOSE IS PART OF A PROCESS BEGUN 14 YEARS AGO, AT THE HEIGHT OF THE REGION'S CIVIL WARS, TO EXPAND EUROPEAN ASSISTANCE TO CENTRAL AMERICA. IN THE LAST DECADE, EUROPE HAS GIVEN CENTRAL AMERICA ABOUT ONE AND HALF BILLION DOLLARS IN AID, REPLACINGTHE UNITED STATES AS THE REGION'S TOP DONOR. (SIGNED)
    NEB/MWD/PT
    10-Feb-98 5:02 PM EST (2202 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)

    DATE=2/10/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-226533
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: TUESDAY'S EARLY SURGE ON WALL STREET HELPED PROPEL LATE-DAY BUYING ON THE MAJOR STOCK MARKETS OF WESTERN EUROPE. FOR THE CLOSING NUMBERS, HERE'S VOA'S PAUL FRANCUCH IN LONDON.

    TEXT: THE BIG ADVANCE IN NEW YORK PROVED TO BE A LATE-DAY TONIC FOR EUROPEAN TRADING WHICH SHOWED LITTLE CLEAR SIGN OF DIRECTION EARLIER IN THE DAY. THAT, PLUS A COMBINATION OF ENCOURAGING ECONOMIC REPORTS AND A GENERALLY-HIGHER U-S DOLLAR, HELPED MARKETS IN FRANKFURT, LONDON AND PARIS TO ALL CLOSE HIGHER. GAINS WERE IN THE RANGE OF ONE-QUARTER TO A HALF PERCENT FOR THE DAY.

    HERE IN LONDON, THE "FINANCIAL TIMES" 100 INDEX ENDED 12 POINTS HIGHER. THE FRANKFURT "DAX 30" GAINED 39 POINTS. PARIS'S "CAC 40" INDEX ADDED 15 POINTS WHEN TRADING ENDED.

    THE DOLLAR WAS UP SLIGHTLY AGAINST BOTH THE GERMAN MARK AND BRITISH POUND.

    GOLD PRICES REMAIN AROUND THE 300-DOLLAR AN OUNCE MARK, DOWN ABOUT A HALF-DOLLAR FROM MONDAY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PCF/PM
    10-Feb-98 1:52 PM EST (1852 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] EUROPE / SINGLE CURRENCY BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)

    DATE=2/10/98
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-38922
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: A BRITISH RESEARCH ORGANIZATION SAYS EUROPEANS ARE MORE SKEPTICAL ABOUT MONETARY UNION AND INTEGRATION THAN EVER BEFORE. IN THIS REPORT FROM LONDON, V-O-A'S ANDRE DE NESNERA LOOKS AT THE FINDINGS IN THE LATEST STUDY RELEASED BY A LEFT-OF-CENTER THINK TANK (RESEARCH GROUP).

    TEXT: THE LATEST REPORT BY BRITAIN'S "DEMOS" RESEARCH ORGANIZATION IS CERTAINLY NO BOOST TO EUROPEAN POLITICIANS ARGUING FOR CLOSER ECONOMIC AND MONETARY INTEGRATION.

    A STUDY ENTITLED "MAKING EUROPE POPULAR" SAYS SUPPORT FOR THE EUROPEAN UNION IS IN RAPID DECLINE. IT SAYS ONLY 46 PERCENT OF EUROPEANS SUPPORT THEIR COUNTRY'S MEMBERSHIP IN THE EUROPEAN UNION -- THE LOWEST LEVEL EVER. AND IT SAYS ONLY 41 PERCENT BELIEVE THEIR COUNTRY BENEFITS FROM E-U MEMBERSHIP -- AGAIN, LOWER THAN AT ANY OTHER TIME. IN ADDITION, SUPPORT FOR EUROPEAN MONETARY UNION HAS FALLEN BELOW 50 PERCENT -- FOR THE FIRST TIME SINCE RECORDS BEGAN.

    THE AUTHOR OF THE REPORT -- MARK LEONARD -- SAYS THE MAIN PROBLEM IS THAT MANY EUROPEANS FIND THE E-U AND ITS ACTIVITIES REMOTE FROM THEIR DAILY LIVES AND CONCERNS.

    // LEONARD ACT //

    PEOPLE FEEL DISTANT FROM IT AND THEY DO NOT THINK IT KEYS INTO THEIR PRIORITIES BECAUSE THOUGH THEY DO NOT UNDERSTAND IT VERY WELL. THEY HAVE GOT A CLEAR CONCEPTION OF WHAT IT SHOULD BE DOING -- WHICH IS DEALING WITH THE BIG ISSUES WHICH THEIR OWN COUNTRIES CAN NOT DEAL WITH ON THEIR OWN LIKE JOB CREATION, THE ENVIRONMENT AND FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY. INSTEAD OF THAT, THE E-U SEEMS TO BE FOCUSING ON PRECISELY THE ISSUES THEY ARE LEAST INTERESTED IN LIKE A COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND ECONOMIC AND MONETARY UNION WHICH IS A PRIORITY FOR ONLY ONE IN TEN EUROPEANS.

    // END ACT //

    MR. LEONARD SAYS THE EUROPEAN UNION HAS NOT BEEN ABLE TO, IN ADVERTISING TERMS -- "SELL EUROPE". ONE OF THE MAIN REASONS -- SAYS THE BRITISH AUTHOR -- IS THAT THE EUROPEAN UNION HAS NO CLEAR AIMS AS IT APPROACHES THE NEW MILLENNIUM.

    MR. LEONARD SAYS WHEN THE E-U WAS CREATED, IT HAD THREE CLEAR GOALS: PROMOTING PEACE, PROSPERITY AND DEMOCRACY. BUT ACCORDING TO THE BRITISH ACADEMIC, OVER THE YEARS, THOSE THREE AIMS HAVE BEEN ERODED.

    // SECOND LEONARD ACT //

    PEACE, SIMPLY BECAUSE MOST PEOPLE HAVE NOT KNOWN ANYTHING OTHER THAN PEACE AND ALSO WHEN PEACE HAS BEEN THREATENED ON ITS VERY DOORSTEP WITH THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA, FOR INSTANCE, THE EUROPEAN UNION SIGNALLY FAILED TO DO ANYTHING ABOUT IT. PROSPERITY HAS BEEN UNDERMINED BY BURGEONING UNEMPLOYMENT AND DEMOCRACY IS NOT ATTRACTIVE TO A GENERATION WHICH IS REALLY QUITE TURNED OFF BY MAINSTREAM POLITICS ANYWAY. AND IN PLACE OF THOSE THREE VERY POWERFUL AIMS, THERE ISN'T REALLY A NEW STORY ABOUT WHAT EUROPE IS FOR -- AND PEOPLE HAVE GOT A SENSE THAT THE INSTITUTIONS (IN BRUSSELS) HAVE SIMPLY BECOME BOGGED DOWN BY TECHNOCRATIC MINUTIAE AND BUREAUCRATIC MEASURES, RATHER THAN FOCUSING ON THE BIG PICTURE.

    // END ACT //

    MARK LEONARD FROM LONDON'S "DEMOS" RESEARCH ORGANIZATION, HOPES THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT -- WHICH IS CURRENTLY PRESIDENT OF THE E-U UNTIL JULY -- WILL BEGIN TO FORGE A NEW MISSION AND SENSE OF PURPOSE FOR THE EUROPEAN UNION. OTHERWISE, HE FEARS THE TENUOUS SUPPORT THE E-U CURRENTLY HOLDS AMONG EUROPEANS WILL BE FURTHER ERODED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/PCF
    10-Feb-98 11:27 AM EST (1627 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] FRANCE / IRAQ (L ONLY) BY JULIAN NUNDY (PARIS)

    DATE=2/10/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-226517
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: FRANCE'S FOREIGN MINISTER SAYS THE CHANCES OF FINDING A DIPLOMATIC SOLUTION TO THE IRAQI CRISIS ARE DWINDLING. BUT JULIAN NUNDY IN PARIS REPORTS FOREIGN MINISTER HUBERT VEDRINE ALSO SAYS FRANCE WILL CONTINUE ITS EFFORTS TO HEAD OFF A MILITARY OPERATION AGAINST IRAQ. JULIAN NUNDY REPORTS FROM PARIS.

    TEXT: FRENCH FOREIGN MINISTER HUBERT VEDRINE, WHO HAS BEEN LEADING INTENSIVE FRENCH EFFORTS TO SOLVE THE CRISIS BETWEEN IRAQ AND THE UNITED NATIONS, SAYS HOPES OF FINDING A PEACEFUL, DIPLOMATIC SOLUTION ARE FADING.

    MR. VEDRINE TOLD A FRENCH STATE RADIO STATION THAT, FOR HIM, "THE ONLY GOOD SOLUTION" IS FOR IRAQ TO ALLOW UNITED NATIONS ARMS INSPECTORS TO CARRY OUT THEIR TASK OF ENSURING THAT IRAQ HAS ELIMINATED STOCKS OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS.

    FRANCE HAS BEEN TRYING IN RECENT WEEKS TO PERSUADE IRAQI PRESIDENT SADDAM HUSSEIN TO ABIDE BY U-N RESOLUTIONS. ALTHOUGH FRANCE BACKS THE U-N DEMANDS, IT HAS MADE IT CLEAR THAT IT IS VERY RETICENT ABOUT THE USE OF MILITARY ACTION THAT PRESIDENT CLINTON HAS THREATENED IF IRAQ DOES NOT RESPECT THE U-N CALL .

    FRANCE HAS ALSO MADE IT PLAIN THAT IT WILL NOT BE PART OF ANY NEW MILITARY COALITION TO ATTACK IRAQ SHOULD DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS FAIL. LAST WEEK, FRANCE SENT A SENIOR DIPLOMAT TO BAGHDAD TO NEGOTIATE WITH SADDAM HUSSEIN. PARIS HAS BEEN IN CLOSE CONTACT WITH RUSSIA WHICH ALSO OPPOSES A MILITARY SOLUTION.

    A SPOKESWOMAN FOR MR. VEDRINE SAID FRANCE WILL NOT CONSIDER THAT DIPLOMACY HAS FAILED UNTIL U-N SECRETARY GENERAL KOFI ANNAN HAS VISITED BAGHDAD HIMSELF.

    MR. ANNAN PUT OFF A VISIT TO THE MIDDLE EAST THIS WEEK TO STAY AT U-N HEADQUARTERS IN NEW YORK BECAUSE HE SAID DIPLOMATIC EFFORTS ARE AT A CRUCIAL STATE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JWN/JWH
    10-Feb-98 9:55 AM EST (1455 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] IRAQ/KURDS (L-ONLY) BY AMBERIN ZAMAN (ANKARA)

    DATE=2/10/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-226521
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE KURDS OF NORTHERN IRAQ HAVE FOR MORE THAN HALF A CENTURY BEEN THE MOST FORMIDABLE ENEMIES OF SUCCESSIVE GOVERNMENTS IN BAGHDAD, WAGING A GUERRILLA CAMPAIGN FOR AUTONOMY. BUT AS AMBERIN ZAMAN REPORTS FROM ANKARA, THE IRAQI KURDS ARE NO LONGER PREPARED TO FIGHT AGAINST IRAQ'S CURRENT PRESIDENT, SADDAM HUSSEIN.

    TEXT: IF ANYTHING, THE TWO MAIN KURDISH KURDISH FACTIONS BASED IN NORTHERN IRAQ ARE TALKING ABOUT REACHING AN AGREEMENT WITH BAGHDAD THAT WOULD GRANT THEM A FEDERAL STATUS WITHIN A UNIFIED IRAQ.

    SENIOR OFFICIALS FROM MASSOUD BARZANI'S "KURDISTAN DEMOCRATIC PARTY" -- THE K-D-P -- AND FROM JALAL TALABANI'S "PATRIOTIC UNION OF KURDISTAN," -- THE P-U-K -- HAVE TRAVELLED TO BAGHDAD IN RECENT MONTHS TO MEET WITH THE IRAQI PRESIDENT. SADDAM HUSSEIN HAS ALSO OFFERED TO MEDIATE BETWEEN THE RIVAL KURDISH GROUPS, WHICH HAVE BEEN LOCKED IN A FOUR-YEAR-LONG FIGHT FOR CONTROL OVER THE ENCLAVE. //OPT// SOURCES CLOSE TO THE TALKS SAY THAT THE IRAQI PRESIDENT IS ONLY INTERESTED IN SIGNING A DEAL WITH THE KURDS WHICH WOULD INCLUDE BOTH PARTIES. //END OPT//

    YET UP UNTIL RECENTLY, OPEN CONTACTS BETWEEN THE IRAQI KURDS AND SADDAM HUSSEIN'S GOVERNMENT WOULD HAVE BEEN UNTHINKABLE. AT THE END OF 1991 THE GULF WAR, THE P-U-K AND THE K-D-P JOINED FORCES AND REBELLED AGAINST BAGHDAD. BUT THEIR REBELLION WAS SOON CRUSHED AND MILLIONS OF KURDISH CIVILIANS, FEARING DEATH AT THE HANDS OF IRAQI TROOPS, MASSED ALONG THE IRANIAN AND TURKISH BORDERS, HOPING TO BE ALLOWED IN.

    //OPT//

    .THAT IS WHEN THE GULF WAR ALLIES, LED BY THE UNITED STATES, DECLARED THE "NO FLY ZONE" NORTH OF THE 36TH PARALLEL, WHICH HAS REMAINED IN FORCE EVER SINCE. //END OPT//

    ASKED IF THEY WOULD RISE UP AGAINST SADDAM HUSSEIN AGAIN, IRAQI KURDISH LEADERS, NOW SAY THAT FIGHTING HIS GOVERNMENT IS NO LONGER AN OPTION.

    MANY IRAQI KURDISH OFFICIALS BLAME WHAT THEY DESCRIBE AS CONTRADICTORY AMERICAN POLICIES, MEDDLING FROM NEIGHBORING TURKEY AND IRAN, AND THE FOUR-YEAR-LONG INTERNAL CONFLICT BETWEEN THE P-U-K AND K-D-P FOR SADDAM HUSSEIN'S GROWING INFLUENCE IN THE ENCLAVE. ABOVE ALL, THEY ACCUSE WASHINGTON OF WHAT THEY DESCRIBE AS USING THE KURDS TO DESTABILIZE SADDAM HUSSEIN'S REGIME WITHOUT BACKING THE KURDS' ASPIRATIONS FOR INDEPENDENCE.

    SHAZAD SAIB IS THE ANKARA REPRESENTATIVE OF MR TALABANI'S P-U-K. HE SAYS EVEN IF THE UNITED STATES WERE TO ATTACK IRAQ, THIS WILL NOT HAVE THE SAME IMPACT AS THE GULF WAR DID ON THE KURDS.

    ///SAIB ACT ///

    WHAT HAPPENED IN 1991, IT WAS A DIFFERENT SITUATION THAN NOW. (THE) SITUATION IN IRAQ WAS NOT CLEAR. NOW THE KURDISH PARTIES THEMSELVES ARE CONTROLLING SOME AREAS AND THE IRAQI GOVERNMENT ITSELF WITHDREW FROM THOSE AREAS. I DON'T THINK THERE WILL BE A NEW THING (REASON) TO UPRISE AGAIN. WE ARE IN THE AREA CONTROLLING THE AREA. I RULE OUT ANY DEVELOPMENT LIKE THAT.

    ///END ACT///

    MR. SAIB ALSO MAINTAINS THAT THERE IS NO REASON FOR THE IRAQI PRESIDENT TO INVADE THE NORTH AGAIN. AND IF THE UNITED STATES DOES ATTACK IRAQ, HE SAYS MOST LIKELY THIS TIME MANY IRAQ ARABS WILL SEEK REFUGE IN THE KURDISH-CONTROLLED ENCLAVE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/AZ/PCF
    10-Feb-98 10:42 AM EST (1542 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] N-Y ECON WRAP (S & L) BY BRECK ARDERY (NEW YORK)

    DATE=2/10/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-226547
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCK PRICES IN THE UNITED STATES WERE UP SHARPLY TODAY (TUESDAY) WITH THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSING AT A RECORD HIGH FOR THE FIRST TIME IN SIX MONTHS. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT BRECK ARDERY REPORTS FROM NEW YORK.

    TEXT: THE DOW JONES INDUSTRIAL AVERAGE CLOSED AT A RECORD HIGH 82 HUNDRED 95, UP 115 POINTS, MORE THAN ONE PERCENT. THAT BEATS THE PREVIOUS RECORD HIGH OF 82 HUNDRED 59 SET LAST AUGUST SIXTH. THE STANDARD AND POOR'S 500 INDEX CLOSED AT ONE THOUSAND 19, UP EIGHT POINTS. IT ALSO SET A RECORD HIGH.

    THE RALLY TOOK MANY ANALYSTS BY SURPRISE. BUT OTHERS SAY THE VERY MODEST PROFIT-TAKING MONDAY AFTER LAST WEEK'S STRONG ADVANCE WAS A SIGNAL OF CONTINUED UPWARD MOMENTUM IN STOCK PRICES.

    THE GOVERNMENT REPORTED U-S BUSINESS PRODUCTIVITY GREW AT A HEALTHY TWO PERCENT ANNUAL RATE IN THE FOURTH QUARTER OF LAST YEAR. ECONOMISTS SAY RISING PRODUCTIVITY IS A KEY FACTOR IN KEEPING INFLATION UNDER CONTROL.

    /// REST OPT FOR LONG ///

    PRESIDENT CLINTON SAYS THE U-S ECONOMY IS STRONG, WITH STEADY GROWTH PROSPECTS AHEAD. IN HIS ANNUAL ECONOMIC REPORT, MR. CLINTON SAYS ASIA'S FINANCIAL CRISIS MAY SLOW THE RATE OF U-S GROWTH BUT WILL NOT STOP IT.

    THE PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY IS JOINING A TREND IN WHICH CORPORATIONS BUY BACK THEIR OWN STOCK. PHILLIPS WILL BUY 500 MILLION DOLLARS WORTH OF ITS STOCK OR MORE THAN FOUR PERCENT OF THE COMPANY'S OUTSTANDING SHARES.

    THE TIME-WARNER ENTERTAINMENT AND PUBLISHING COMPANY REPORTED A 216 MILLION DOLLAR QUARTERLY PROFIT, BETTER THAN EXPECTED AND DESPITE SOME WEAKNESS IN THE COMPANY'S MUSIC DIVISION.

    THE FIRST DAY OF TRADING FOR THE DUANE READE DRUG STORE CHAIN WAS GREETED WITH ENTHUSIASM ON THE NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE. THE STOCK IMMEDIATELY GAINED ABOUT 30 PERCENT. DUANE READE IS A REGIONAL DRUG CHAIN IN THE NEW YORK CITY AREA.(SIGNED) NEB/NY/BA/LSF/PT
    10-Feb-98 4:43 PM EST (2143 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] NATO COSTS (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=2/10/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-226544
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE COSTS OF NATO'S EXPANSION TO THE THREE PROSPECTIVE NEW MEMBERS IN CENTRAL EUROPE WERE THE SUBJECT OF A CONFERENCE IN WASHINGTON TUESDAY. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS THE MEETING WAS ADDRESSED BY THE FOREIGN MINISTERS OF HUNGARY, POLAND, AND THE CZECH REPUBLIC.

    TEXT: OFFICIALS OF THE INCOMING MEMBERS ARGUED THAT THEIR COUNTRIES ARE PREPARED TO PAY FOR MODERNIZING THEIR ARMED FORCES TO MAKE THEM NATO COMPATIBLE. THE COSTS OF EXPANSION WERE PUT AT A MODEST ONE POINT THREE BILLION DOLLARS, FAR LESS THAN WHAT IS GENERALLY PROJECTED BY THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION. CZECH, HUNGARIAN AND POLISH OFFICIALS SAID THE MOST OF THE COSTS WOULD BE INCURRED EVEN WITHOUT NATO MEMBERSHIP SINCE THEIR ARMED FORCES ARE IN DESPARATE NEED OF MODERNIZATION.

    HUNGARIAN FOREIGN MINISTER LASZLO KOVACS ARGUED THAT NATO EXPANSION IS RELATIVELY CHEAP SINCE THE UNITED STATES ALONE HAS PAID OVER SEVEN BILLION DOLLARS FOR PEACEKEEPING IN BOSNIA. MR. KOVACS SAID NATO EXPANSION BRINGS STABILITY TO CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE.

    //KOVACS ACT//

    ENLARGEMENT OF NATO WILL EXTEND THE ZONE OF STABILITY AND SECURITY FROM WEST TO EAST. NEW MEMBERS WILL PROJECT STABILITY FURTHER. THE PROSPECT OF MEMBERSHIP IN NATO ENCOURAGED HUNGARY AND ITS TWO NEIGHBORS, SLOVAKIA AND ROMANIA, TO SIGN BASIC TREATIES ON THEIR RELATIONS CONFIRMING THE INVIOLIBILITY OF BORDERS, ABANDONING TERRITORIAL CLAIMS, AND GUARANTEEING THE RIGHTS OF NATIONAL MINORITIES.

    //END ACT//

    NATO OFFICIALS AT THE MEETING STRESSED THAT NUCLEAR WEAPONS WILL NOT BE STATIONED IN THE THREE NEW MEMBER COUNTRIES, THAT NATO FORCES FROM THE WEST WILL NOT BE STATIONED IN THE EAST, AND THAT THERE WILL BE NO SEPARATE MILITARY COMMAND FOR THE THREE NEW MEMBERS.

    POLISH FOREIGN MINISTER BRONISLAW GEREMEK TOLD THE CONFERENCE THAT THE PROSPECTIVE NATO SECURITY GUARANTE HAS BOOSTED THE FLOW OF FOREIGN CAPITAL INTO CENTRAL EUROPE.

    // GEREMEK ACT //

    WE HAVE IN POLAND 20 BILLION DOLLARS COMING FROM WESTERN COUNTRIES--AND IN VERY GREAT PART FROM THE UNITED STATES. THIS LAST YEAR, 1997, SEVEN BILLION DOLLARS WERE INVESTED IN POLAND. IT MEANS THAT NATO IS BRINGING THE FEELING OF SECURITY NOT ONLY TO THE POLISH PEOPLE BUT ALSO TO THE WESTERN MONEY INVESTED IN POLAND.

    //END ACT//

    A SPEAKER FROM THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND OBSERVED THAT MILITARY SPENDING IN EASTERN EUROPE IS DOWN SIGNIFICANTLY SINCE THE COLD WAR ENDED. THE PROSPECTIVE NEW MEMBERS ARE NOW BOOSTING THEIR MILITARY EXPENDITURES, WHICH CURRENTLY EQUAL ABOUT TWO PERCENT OF GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/PT
    10-Feb-98 4:15 PM EST (2115 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] SENATE-NATO (L-ONLY) BY DAVID SWAN (CAPITOL HILL)

    DATE=2/10/98
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-226546
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION IS STARTING ITS FINAL PUSH FOR THE EASTWARD EXPANSION OF NATO, BY FORMALLY SENDING THE PLAN TO THE SENATE AND ASKING FOR RATIFICATION (WEDNESDAY). V-O-A'S DAVID SWAN REPORTS ON THE OUTLOOK FOR THE ACCEPTANCE OF POLAND, THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND HUNGARY.

    TEXT: SO FAR, THE ISSUE HAS DRAWN LITTLE ATTENTION IN THIS YEAR'S SESSION OF CONGRESS, BEING OVERSHADOWED BY THE CRISIS WITH IRAQ AND THE PERSONAL AND LEGAL CONTROVERSY SURROUNDING THE PRESIDENT. STILL, NATO EXPANSION REMAINS A MAJOR FOREIGN POLICY GOAL FOR THE WHITE HOUSE -- AND ONE IT SEEMS LIKELY TO ACHIEVE, WITH HELP FROM OPPOSITION REPUBLICANS.

    SENATE LEADERS SAY THEY ARE NOT COUNTING VOTES YET. BUT IN A MEETING WITH THE CZECH, HUNGARIAN AND POLISH FOREIGN MINISTERS (TUESDAY), MAJORITY LEADER TRENT LOTT PREDICTED A SUBSTANTIAL MARGIN OF SUPPORT.

    /// LOTT ACT ///

    I PERSONALLY AM SATISFIED THAT THIS IS THE RIGHT THING TO DO FOR THE UNITED STATES AND FOR NATO, TO SUPPORT THIS ENLARGEMENT. I BELIEVE THAT THESE COUNTRIES AND THESE LEADERS ARE MAKING THE NECESSARY PREPARATIONS, TAKING THE NECESSARY STEPS.

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. LOTT IS NOT THE ONLY PROMINENT REPUBLICAN BACKING THE PLAN. FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN JESSE HELMS HAS ALSO COME OUT IN FAVOR OF ENLARGEMENT.

    SOME OF THOSE WHO OPPOSE THE IDEA ARE WORRIED ABOUT ITS COST, THOUGH THE ADMINISTRATION SAYS THE U-S SHARE WILL BE FAR SMALLER THAN FIRST BELIEVED. THERE ARE ALSO CONCERNS ABOUT ANTAGONIZING RUSSIA AND WEAKENING NATO'S POLITICAL AND MILITARY STRENGTH. ONE SENATOR (REPUBLICAN JOHN WARNER) HAS SUGGESTED THE ALLIES SHOULD CALL A MORATORIUM ON ANY SECOND ROUND OF EXPANSION. SECRETARY OF STATE MADELINE ALBRIGHT SAYS THE PROCESS SHOULD BE UNFETTERED.

    /// ALBRIGHT ACT ///

    WE THINK THAT THIS -- THAT THERE NEEDS TO BE AN OPEN-DOOR PROCESS BECAUSE WHAT WE DON'T WANT TO DO IS CREATE ANY NEW ARTIFICIAL DIVIDING LINES BECAUSE WHAT WE'RE TRYING TO DO ACTUALLY IS ELIMINATE THEM. AND IF WE WERE TO SAY THAT THERE IS A PAUSE, IT WOULD IN FACT CREATE SUCH A LINE.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE ALLIANCE WILL REVIEW THE STATUS OF ENLARGEMENT IN 1999. THE SENATE IS EXPECTED TO VOTE ON ADMITTING THE FIRST THREE NEW MEMBERS SOMETIME IN MARCH. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DS/WDC/PT
    10-Feb-98 4:38 PM EST (2138 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [09] TUESDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=02/10/98
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-10568
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=ASSIGNMENTS
    CONTENT=

    //// EDS: PERISHABLE MATERIAL, DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ! ! ////

    INTRO: THE ON-GOING CONFRONTATION BETWEEN SPECIAL COUNSEL KENNETH STARR AND THE CLINTON WHITE HOUSE CONTINUES TO PLAY HIGH IN THE EDITORIALS COLUMNS OF THE NATION'S NEWSPAPERS, BUT SEVERAL OTHER TOPICS ARE ALSO POPULAR THIS TUESDAY. ONE IS THE CONGRESSIONAL CONFIRMATION VOTE SCHEDULED FOR TODAY OF A NEW SURGEON GENERAL; ANOTHER IS THE CONFLICT WITH IRAQ. OTHER TOPICS INCLUDE THE POLITICAL TURMOIL IN ARMENIA; THE NEW CAMBODIAN LEADER AND THE CONTROVERSY REGARDING HUMAN CLONING. NOW, HERE IS _________________WITH A CLOSER LOOK AND SOME QUOTES IN TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE CONFLICT CONTINUES BETWEEN THE PRESIDENT'S AIDES AND THE SPECIAL COUNSEL KENNETH STARR WHO IS NOW INVESTIGATING AN ALLEGED SEXUAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FORMER WHITE HOUSE INTERN MONICA LEWINSKY AND THE PRESIDENT. THERE ARE ALSO ACCUSATIONS THAT MR. CLINTON ASKED THE WOMAN TO LIE UNDER OATH ABOUT THE ALLEGED AFFAIR. NOW THE WHITE HOUSE IS ATTACKING MR. STAR AND HIS TEAM FOR LEAKING SUPPOSEDLY CONFIDENTIAL GRAND JURY TESTIMONY REGARDING THE MATTER.

    IN THE HEART OF THE NATION, "THE TOPEKA [KANSAS] CAPITOL-JOURNAL" SAYS THE PUBLIC SHOULD STAY FOCUSED ON THE ISSUE, AND NOT BE DISTRACTED BY THE ATTACK ON KENNETH STARR.

    VOICE: FROM THE OUTSET, THE CLINTON GAME PLAN [STRATEGY] HAS BEEN THAT THE BEST DEFENSE IS A GOOD OFFENSE. SO WHENEVER ANYONE HAS GONE AFTER [ATTACKED] ITS CANDIDATE OR PRESIDENT, THE CLINTON TEAM HAS LET LOOSE THE ATTACK DOGS.... NOW THE PRESIDENT DENIES ANOTHER AFFAIR, THIS TIME WITH MONICA LEWINSKY. IS HE TELLING THE TRUTH...? ...... FIRST THE PRESIDENT ISSUED MEEK DENIALS. THEN THEY BECAME LOUDER, THOUGH NOT NECESSARILY STRONGER... NOW THE CLINTON MACHINE IS LASHING OUT AT INDEPENDENT COUNSEL KENNETH STARR AND ALLEGED NEWS LEAKS FROM [MR.] STARR'S OFFICE. PERHAPS THERE IS A PROBLEM THERE.... REGARDLESS, THIS ATTACK ON [MR.] STARR SEEMS DIVERSIONARY.

    TEXT: SAYS "THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER," "THE STRING OF LEAKS [IS] DAMAGING TO JUSTICE AND FAIRNESS."

    VOICE: .... FOR THREE WEEKS, IT'S BEEN ONE 'LEAK' AFTER ANOTHER, TITILLATING AND ANNOYING PEOPLE WITHOUT LETTING THEM KNOW FOR CERTAIN WHAT WENT ON.... THE PRESIDENT'S LAWYER AND SUPPORTERS BLAME THE TORRENT OF LEAKS ON INDEPENDENT COUNSEL KENNETH STARR. 'TIS A TROUBLING TIME FOR THE LEGAL SYSTEM, FOR THE POLITICAL SYSTEM -- AND FOR THE LEAK-SPONGING NEWS MEDIA... SENSATIONAL LEAKS ARE A LOUSY WAY TO PIN DOWN THE TRUTH. STILL, REMEMBER WHY THESE WHISPERED TALES REVERBERATE SO LOUDLY: THOUGH MR. CLINTON HAS FLATLY [TOTALLY] DENIED THE WORST OF THE ALLEGATIONS, HE'S NOT ANSWERED MANY TROUBLING, OBSTRUCTION-OF-JUSTICE QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS EPISODE.

    /// OPT ///

    TEXT: "THE NEW YORK TIMES" CALLS WHAT IS GOING ON IN THE NATION'S CAPITAL "WASHINGTON'S INFORMATION WARS" AND NOTES:

    VOICE: THE WHITE HOUSE'S WEEKEND COUNTEROFFENSIVE AGAINST KENNETH STARR WAS DAZZLING AS A MATTER OF TACTICS. BUT IT IS ESSENTIAL TO REMEMBER ITS TWO REAL OBJECTIVES. ONE IS TO CHANGE THE SUBJECT FROM PRESIDENT CLINTON'S BEHAVIOR AND TRUTHFULNESS. THE OTHER, AS WITH ALL WHITE HOUSE LEAK CRUSADES IN ANY ADMINISTRATION, IS TO DAM THE FLOW OF INFORMATION TO THE AMERICAN PEOPLE.... THE INDEPENDENT COUNSEL STATUE [THAT IS THE LAW SETTING UP THE JOB OF INDEPENDENT COUNSEL] IS GETTING ITS SHARE OF BASHING [CRITICISM] FROM THE WHITE HOUSE AND CONGRESS NOW. BUT .... WITHOUT THAT LAW AND, MORE IMPORTANT, WITHOUT VIGOROUS REPORTING, THE PUBLIC WOULD HAVE ONLY A VERY SKETCHY [INCOMPLETE] PICTURE OF WHAT HAS GONE ON WITHIN THIS ADMINISTRATION OVER THE PAST SIX YEARS.

    /// END OPT ///

    TEXT: STILL ON THE DOMESTIC SCENE, SEVERAL PAPERS, INCLUDING "THE ATLANTA CONSTITUTION," "BOSTON GLOBE" AND "USA TODAY" ARE URGING THE SENATE TO CONFIRM DOCTOR DAVID SATCHER AS THE NATION'S NEW SURGEON GENERAL. HERE'S PART OF "THE CONSTITUTION'S" ARGUMENT.

    VOICE: REPUBLICANS AND DEMOCRATS IN THE U-S SENATE NEED TO SQUELCH A THREATENED FILLIBUSTER INTENDED TO THWART THE NOMINATION OF DR. DAVID SATCHER TO THE TWIN POSTS OF U-S SURGEON GENERAL AND ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES. [DOCTOR] SATCHER, NOW DIRECTOR OF THE CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION IN ATLANTA, HAS EARNED THE ENTHUSIASTIC ENDORSEMENT OF A MULTITUDE OF MEDICAL AND SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES FOR HIS PROFESSIONALISM, INTEGRITY AND THOROUGH GROUNDING ON PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUES. IT WOULD BE A TRAVESTY IF HIS ELEVATION TO THESE JOBS WERE PREVENTED FOR REASONS OF SINGLE-ISSUE POLITICS AND PERSONAL OPPORTUNISM.

    TEXT: TURNING TO THE MIDDLE EAST, TODAY'S "LOS ANGELES TIMES" IS SUGGESTING "LIMITED RAIDS AGAINST IRAQ MAKE SENSE," DESPITE OBJECTIONS FROM RUSSIA, FRANCE AND SOME ARAB STATES, AND DESPITE PRODDING FOR A LARGER ATTACK FROM CONGRESSIONAL REPUBLICANS.

    VOICE: THE CLINTON ADMINISTRATION SEEMS TO HAVE SETTLED ON CONSIDERABLY LESS AMBITIOUS BUT MORE READILY ACHIEVABLE OBJECTIVES. THE BOMBS AND MISSILES IT IS PREPARED TO USE AGAINST IRAQ ARE INTENDED TO SET BACK [MR.] HUSSEIN'S PROGRAMS FOR DEVELOPING TERROR WEAPONS AND WEAKEN THE MILITARY PROPS OF HIS REGIME. THE GOAL IS TO REDUCE THE IMMEDIATE THREAT POSED BY IRAQ'S CLANDESTINE EFFORTS TO BUILD UP AN ARSENAL OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS.... [PRESIDENT] CLINTON'S APPROACH DESERVES BIPARTISAN BACKING, AND CERTAINLY IT MERITS FAR MORE SUPPORT THAT IT HAS RECEIVED FROM FAIR-WEATHER FRIENDS ABROAD.

    TEXT: AS REGARDS THE RECENT FORCED RESIGNATION OF ARMENIAN PRESIDENT LEVON TER-PETROSIAN, "THE SUN" IN BALTIMORE LAMENTS IT, DESPITE THE FACT THAT IT CALLS HIM "AN ARBITRARY LEADER WHO MOST PROBABLY CHEATED HIS WAY INTO REELECTION IN 1996."

    VOICE: ... HE WAS THE GLUE THAT KEPT TOGETHER A PEACE PROCESS SPONSORED BY THE UNITED STATES, FRANCE AND RUSSIA. WITH HIS RESIGNATION, EFFORTS TO END AN ECONOMIC BLOCKADE OF ARMENIA BY AZERBAIJAN AND TURKEY HAVE BEEN DEALT A SEVERE BLOW. MATERIAL HARDSHIPS AND STAGNATION WILL CONTINUE IN ARMENIA.... //// OPT /// NAGORNO-KARABAKH WAS THE DEFINING ISSUE OF ARMENIAN POLITICS EVEN BEFORE THE COLLAPSE OF THE SOVIET UNION. THE REMOTE ENCLAVE'S ONLY REALISTIC HOPE FOR CULTURAL AND RELIGIOUS SELF-DETERMINATION IS AS AN AUTONOMOUS PART OF AZERBAIJAN. MR. LEV-PETROSIAN RECOGNIZED THIS AND WAS BRANDED A TRAITOR. FINDING A SOLUTION TO THIS DIFFICULT DILEMMA WILL BE MUCH MORE DIFFICULT WITHOUT HIM. /// END OPT ////

    TEXT: IN ASIAN AFFAIRS, "THE WASHINGTON POST" IS LAMENTING THE REIMPOSITION OF A DICTATORSHIP IN CAMBODIA AFTER LAST YEAR'S MILITARY COUP BY CO-PRIME MINISTER HUN SEN.

    VOICE: THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY, UPON WHICH CAMBODIA RELIED HEAVILY FOR AID, HAS BEEN, FOR THE MOST PART ... ADMIRABLY UNITED IN PRESSING HUN SEN TO REPAIR THE DAMAGE HE CAUSED. NOW THE EUROPEAN UNION, BY AUTHORIZING 11-POINT-FIVE MILLION DOLLARS IN AID FOR THE HUN SEN REGIME, HAS IMPERILED THAT UNITY -- AND CAMBODIA'S CHANCES TO RETURN TO A DEMOCRATIC PATH.... IF THE EUROPEAN PRECEDENT STANDS, CAMBODIA COULD ... BECOME AN EXAMPLE OF WESTERN HYPOCRISY ON THE SUBJECT OF DEMOCRACY.

    TEXT: LASTLY, ON THE SUBJECT OF CLONING HUMANS, A POSSIBILITY WIDELY CONDEMNED BY THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY, BUT PROPOSED AS A COMMERCIAL VENTURE LAST MONTH BY A CHICAGO DOCTOR, TODAY'S "NEW YORK TIMES" WORRIES THAT REACTION IN CONGRESS TO THE IDEA, A REPUBLICAN-SPONSORED TOTAL BAN, MAY DO MORE HARM THAN GOOD. "THE TIMES" CALLS THE CONGRESSIONAL REACTION: "A SLAPDASH [NOT WELL THOUGHT OUT] PROPOSAL...."

    VOICE: /// OPT /// THE SHOCK CAUSED BY THE PHYSICIST RICHARD SEED'S GRANDIOSE INTENTION TO CLONE HUMAN BEINGS MAY BE ABOUT TO CAUSE MORE DAMAGE THAN ANYTHING DR. SEED COULD DO IN THE LABORATORY. SENATE REPUBLICANS ARE NOW RUSHING TO ENACT A BILL THAT WOULD OUTLAW CLONING A HUMAN EMBRYO AND, IN THE PROCESS, BAN A VALUABLE TECHNIQUE THAT COULD POTENTIALLY CURE A WIDE RANGE OF DISEASES. NO WONDER A SLEW OF SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATIONS AND HIGH-TECH INDUSTRY GROUPS ARE URGING MORE CAREFULLY CONSTRUCTED LEGISLATION. /// END OPT ///..... THE REPUBLICAN BILL AND OTHERS ON THE SUBJECT HAVE NOT EVEN GONE THROUGH COMMITTEE HEARINGS. WHEN THE MATTER COMES UP FOR A FLOOR VOTE THIS WEEK, THE SENATE SHOULD POSTPONE ACTION AND DEMAND MORE CONSIDERED DELIBERATION. IT WOULD BE A SHAME IF THE RUSH TO BAN CLONING OF PEOPLE ENDED UP CRIPPLING BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH."

    TEXT: ON THAT SCIENTIFIC AND PHILOSOPHICAL NOTE, WE CONCLUDE THIS SAMPLING OF EDITORIALS FROM TODAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/MMK
    10-Feb-98 12:03 PM EST (1703 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [10] TURKS / GERMANY BY KYLE KING (ESSEN)

    DATE=2/10/98
    TYPE=BACKGROUND REPORT
    NUMBER=5-38923
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: GERMANY'S BUREAUCRACY OFTEN IS BLAMED FOR STIFLING THE CREATION OF NEW JOBS. AND FOREIGNERS IN GERMANY OFTEN FACE PREJUDICE IN THE WORKPLACE. BUT A UNIQUE PROGRAM HAS BEEN LAUNCHED THAT IS WORKING QUIETLY TO SOLVE BOTH PROBLEMS AT ONCE. V-O-A'S KYLE KING REPORTS FROM THE NORTHWESTERN GERMAN CITY OF ESSEN.

    TEXT: TWENTY-SIX-YEAR OLD ARSLAN GOKSU TRIES OUT HIS FEW WORDS OF ENGLISH AND LETS OUT A HEARTY LAUGH WHEN ASKED IF BUSINESS IS GOOD AT HIS SMALL BOUTIQUE IN ESSEN, GERMANY.

    /// GOKSU ACT ///

    (LAUGHS) NOT VERY GOOD, BUT ITS GOOD. WE ARE HAPPY. (LAUGHTER)

    /// END ACT ///

    MR. GOKSU, A TURK WHO WAS BORN IN GERMANY BUT THEN ATTENDED HIGH SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY IN ISTANBUL, HAS BEEN IN BUSINESS ONLY FOR ABOUT ONE YEAR. BUT HE AND HIS PARTNER ARE ALREADY PLANNING TO OPEN TWO OTHER SHIRT BOUTIQUES IN THE NEARBY CITIES OF ACHEN AND COLOGNE.

    DESPITE HIS YOUTH AND NATIONALITY -- FACTORS THAT EXPERTS SAY WORK AGAINST PEOPLE TRYING TO START A BUSINESS IN GERMANY -- MR. GOKSU HAS SUCCEEDED WITH THE HELP OF A UNIQUE PROGRAM CALLED TRANSFER. THE PROGRAM IS FUNDED BY THE STATE GOVERNMENT AND THE CENTER FOR TURKISH STUDIES IN ESSEN.

    ONE OF THE ADVISORS AT THE PROGRAM, SEDIF KORAY, SAYS MR. GOKSU AND HIS PARTNER CAME INTO HER OFFICE WITH LITTLE MORE THAN DETERMINATION AND YOUTHFUL ENTHUSIASM.

    /// KORAY ACT ///

    ON THE ONE HAND, THEY WANTED GENERAL INFORMATION ON ESTABLISHING A BUSINESS IN GERMANY AND WHERE THEY COULD GET HELP. ON THE OTHER HAND, THEY HAD ALREADY SEEN A PARTICULAR SHOP THAT THEY WANTED TO GET HOLD OF BUT DIDN'T KNOW HOW TO DO IT, AND THEY ASKED FOR HELP IN THAT MATTER.

    /// END ACT ///

    BECAUSE THEY HAD NO REFERENCES OR EXPERIENCE, ADVISORS FROM THE TRANSFER PROGRAM PUT THE YOUNG MEN IN CONTACT WITH TRADE ORGANIZATIONS. THEY ALSO HAD THE TWO MEN MEET WITH BANKERS AND LANDLORDS. MR. GOKSU SAYS THE ASSISTANCE HELPED.

    /// GOKSU ACT - IN TURKISH, - FADE UNDER ///

    TRANSFER SUPPORTED US, HELPED TO GET THIS SHOP, MR. GOKSU SAYS, AND IT ALSO HELPED WITH THE BANK. IT MADE IT MUCH EASIER TO START THE BUSINESS, HE SAYS. SO FAR, THE PROGRAM HAS HELPED MORE THAN 600 PEOPLE GET STARTED. OF THOSE, 20 PERCENT HAVE BEEN SUCCESSFUL AND ABOUT 40 PERCENT ARE JUST GETTING GOING. PROGRAM MANAGERS SAY THEY PREFER TO STOP THOSE WHO ARE UNPREPARED RATHER THAN LET THEM START A BUSINESS THAT IS LIKELY TO FAIL.

    EVEN WITH HELP, MR. GOKSU SAYS, BEING A FOREIGNER IN GERMANY CAN MAKE BUSINESS MORE DIFFICULT.

    /// GOKSU ACT - IN TURKISH - FADE UNDER ///

    THE FACT THAT WE ARE TURKS HAS HAD SOME DISADVANTAGES, MR. GOKSU SAYS. ONCE WE GOT THE SHOP, THERE WERE NO MORE PROBLEMS WITH THE BANK OR THE LANDLORD. THE MAIN PROBLEM NOW IS WITH THE CUSTOMERS.

    ALTHOUGH BUSINESS IS GOOD, HE SAYS MANY GERMANS ARE SKEPTICAL OF THE QUALITY OF HIS CLOTHES, WHICH ARE MOSTLY CUSTOM MADE AND TAILORED DRESS SHIRTS. MR. GOKSU SAYS MOST OF THE FINEST TEXTILES SOLD IN EUROPE COME FROM TURKEY, BUT HE SAYS MOST PEOPLE DO NOT KNOW THAT, AND ARE INFLUENCED BY WHAT HE CALLS TURKEY'S BAD IMAGE.

    NEVER THE LESS, MR. GOKSU SAYS HE IS OPTIMISTIC ABOUT THE FUTURE, AND HIS ADVISORS AT THE TRANSFER PROGRAM POINT TO HIM AS A POSITIVE EXAMPLE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/KBK/JWH
    10-Feb-98 12:14 PM EST (1714 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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