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Voice of America, 97-01-29 (2 of 2)

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] CYPRUS TENSIONS BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)
  • [02] CYPRUS TENSIONS BY DEBORAH COOPER (WASHINGTON)
  • [03] CZECH MILITARY (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)
  • [04] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)
  • [05] EUROPE / SUDAN (L ONLY) BY SCOTT STEARNS (KAMPALA)
  • [06] U-S-TURKEY (S ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)
  • [07] U-S / ALBANIA (S-ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPT.)

  • [01] CYPRUS TENSIONS BY ANDRE DE NESNERA (LONDON)

    DATE= 1/29/97
    TYPE= CLOSE-UP
    NUMBER= 4-09577
    TELEPHONE= 619-2009 (EDITOR)
    EDITOR= NANCY SMART
    CONTENT=_

    // VOICER AND ACTUALITIES AVAILABLE IN AUDIO SERVICES //

    INTRO: EARLIER THIS MONTH, THE CYPRESS GOVERNMENT ANNOUNCED PLANS TO BUY A RUSSIAN ANTI-AIRCRAFT MISSILE SYSTEM -- A DECISION WHICH HAS ANGERED THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT AND HEIGHTENED TENSIONS IN THE REGION. IN THIS REPORT FROM LONDON, V-O-A CORRESPONDENT ANDRE DE NESNERA LOOKS AT THE MILITARY AND POLITICAL RAMIFICATIONS OF THE DEAL.

    TEXT: WESTERN DEFENSE EXPERTS AND POLITICIANS DESCRIBE THE DIVIDED ISLAND OF CYPRUS AS THE WORLD'S MOST DENSELY MILITARIZED ZONE. ON A RECENT TRIP TO THE ISLAND, BRITISH DEFENSE SECRETARY MALCOLM RIFKIND SAID THE AMOUNT OF MILITARY HARDWARE AND MILITARY PERSONNEL IS DANGEROUSLY HIGH.

    IN THE NORTHERN TURKISH SIDE, ABOUT 35-THOUSAND TROOPS ARE BACKED BY TANKS, HEAVY ARTILLERY AND ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIERS. THE GREEK CYPRIOT SIDE HAS ABOUT 10-THOUSAND MEN AS WELL AS HEAVY ARTILLERY, ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIERS AND TANKS. BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT-HELD SOUTHERN CYPRUS AND THE TURKISH-OCCUPIED NORTH IS A BUFFER ZONE KNOWN AS THE "GREEN LINE," PATROLLED BY ABOUT 12-HUNDRED UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPERS.

    EARLIER THIS MONTH, THE GREEK CYPRIOTS ANNOUNCED PLANS TO BUY A RUSSIAN ANTI-AIRCRAFT MISSILE SYSTEM KNOWN AS "S-300," WHICH HAS A RANGE OF ABOUT 100 KILOMETERS. (OPT) BRITISH DEFENSE EXPERTS SAY THE SYSTEM IS SIMILAR -- THOUGH NOT AS SOPHISTICATED -- AS THE AMERICAN "PATRIOT MISSILE" USED IN THE GULF WAR SIX YEARS AGO. THE "S-300" WAS INITIALLY DEVELOPED BY MOSCOW AS A MOBILE BATTLEFIELD SYSTEM CAPABLE OF DESTROYING AMERICAN CRUISE MISSILES AND TACTICAL AIRCRAFT BEFORE THEY REACH THE BATTLEZONE. (END OPT)

    THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT REACTED SWIFTLY AND ANGRILY TO THE GREEK CYPRIOTS DECISION TO BUY THE RUSSIAN SYSTEM. ANKARA SAID THE "S-300" IS AN OFFENSIVE WEAPON AND SAID ITS ARMED FORCES WOULD ATTACK THE GREEK CYPRIOTS IF THEY DEPLOY THE MISSILES.

    BUT PAUL BEAVER - SENIOR DEFENSE ANALYST WITH THE BRITISH PUBLICATION "JANE'S DEFENSE WEEKLY" - SAYS THE "S-300" IS A PURELY DEFENSIVE SYSTEM.

    TAPE: CUT # 1 - BEAVER "THE TURKS ARE CONCERNED BECAUSE THERE ARE TWO AIRFIELDS CURRENTLY BEING CONSTRUCTED IN SOUTHWEST CYPRUS WHERE THE GREEKS WOULD BE ABLE TO BASE TACTICAL STRIKE AIRCRAFT AND AIR DEFENSE AIRCRAFT. IT LOOKS TO ME AS IF THE "S-300'S" ARE GOING TO BE USED AS AN UMBRELLA ACROSS THE TOP OF THAT AREA AND I THINK THIS IS WHAT THE TURKS ARE CONCERNED ABOUT -- THAT GREEK AIRCRAFT WILL BE ABLE TO OPERATE THERE. "S-300" IS CAPABLE OF DEFEATING ANY TURKISH AIRCRAFT WHICH IS CURRENTLY IN THE INVENTORY AND SO THEY FEEL THE ANTE HAS BEEN UPPED NOT BECAUSE OF THE SYSTEM, BUT BECAUSE OF WHAT IT MEANS."

    TEXT: MR. BEAVER -- AS WELL AS OTHER DEFENSE ANALYSTS -- BELIEVES THE GREEK CYPRIOTS DECISION TO BUY THE RUSSIAN MISSILE SYSTEM SHIFTS THE BALANCE OF POWER IN A VERY VOLATILE REGION.

    TAPE: CUT # 2 - BEAVER "NEITHER THE TURKISH CYPRIOTS IN THE NORTH OF THE ISLAND NOR THE GREEKS HAVE HAD TACTICAL STRIKE AIRCRAFT. (OPT) THEY BOTH HAVE TANKS AND INFANTRY. THEY BOTH HAVE GOT ARTILLERY PIECES. THE CYPRIOT GOVERNMENT HAS GOT FRENCH "GAZELLE" HELICOPTERS WITH ANTI-TANK MISSILES AND THAT IS BASICALLY KEEPING IT TO THE BATTLEFIELD -- IT IS A LOWER LEVEL. (END OPT) BY PUTTING IN THIS AIR DEFENSE SYSTEM AND ALLOWING THE AIRFIELDS TO BE BUILT, THAT HAS UPPED THE ANTE AND I THINK THIS WILL MEAN THE TURKISH SIDE WILL WANT TO REDRESS THAT IN SOME WAY -- IT WILL FEEL -- FOR ITS OWN PEACE OF MIND AND OF COURSE ALSO FOR ITS OWN INTERNATIONAL POSTURING."

    TEXT: BRITISH DEFENSE EXPERTS SAY THE RUSSIAN ANTI-AIRCRAFT SYSTEM CAN BE DEPLOYED -- AT THE EARLIEST -- 16 MONTHS FROM NOW. THEY SAY TALKS ARE STILL GOING ON WITH MOSCOW ABOUT THE DEAL, WHICH ALSO INVOLVES PROVIDING THE GREEK CYPRIOTS WITH ATTACK HELICOPTERS. (OPT)) COLONEL TERENCE TAYLOR FROM LONDON'S INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR STRATEGIC STUDIES, IS NOT SURPRISED BY THE DEAL WITH RUSSIA. HE SAYS OVER THE PAST FEW YEARS, THE GREEK CYPRIOTS HAVE BEEN UPGRADING THEIR MILITARY EQUIPMENT.

    TAPE: CUT # 3 - TAYLOR "THEY HAVE UPGRADED THEIR OLD AMX-30 FRENCH TANKS AND REPLACED THEM WITH RUSSIAN T-80 TANKS WHICH ARE STILL BEING DELIVERED AT THE MOMENT. THEY HAVE GOT IMPROVED ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIERS TOO. (AND THERE ARE) NOT ONLY GREEK CYPRIOT FORCES BUT THERE IS A GREEK MECHANIZED BRIGADE ON THE ISLAND -- THAT IS FROM THE GREEK NATIONAL ARMY AS OPPOSED TO THE CYPRIOT SIDE AND THEIR ARMORED PERSONNEL CARRIERS HAVE ALSO BEEN UPGRADED." (END OPT)

    TEXT: ALTHOUGH THE ARMS DEAL HAS HEIGHTENED TENSIONS IN THE AREA, POLITICAL ANALYSTS SAY IT HAS LESS TO DO WITH MILITARY CONCERNS THAN WITH DIPLOMATIC MANEUVERING ABOUT MEMBERSHIP IN THE EUROPEAN UNION.

    FOR YEARS, TURKEY HAS WANTED TO BE A FULL MEMBER OF THE EUROPEAN UNION BUT ITS MEMBERSHIP HAS BEEN BLOCKED BECAUSE OF VARIOUS CONCERNS ABOUT HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE COUNTRY'S ECONOMY. NOW CYPRUS ALSO HAS APPLIED FOR E-U MEMBERSHIP. SOME ANALYSTS BELIEVE THE GREEK CYPRIOTS DECISION TO BUY THE RUSSIAN MILITARY SYSTEM IS A NEGOTIATING PLOY TO FORCE TURKEY INTO CONCESSIONS LEADING TO A UNITED CYPRUS -- THE ONLY WAY THE CURRENTLY DIVIDED ISLAND COULD BECOME PART OF THE EUROPEAN UNION.

    KEITH KYLE IS A MIDDLE EAST EXPERT AT LONDON'S ROYAL INSTITUTE OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS. HE SAYS THE GREEK CYPRIOTS SEE 1997 AS A CRITICAL YEAR IN TERMS OF RESOLVING THE PARTITION OF CYPRUS.

    TAPE: CUT # 4 - KYLE "THE GREEK CYPRIOTS ARE DETERMINED THAT THE CYPRUS PROBLEM SHOULD BE SETTLED DURING 1997. THEY HAVE AN APPLICATION IN FOR MEMBERSHIP IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. THEY HAVE RECEIVED A PROMISE THAT NEGOTIATIONS ABOUT THIS APPLICATION SHALL BEGIN SIX MONTHS AFTER THE END OF THE CURRENT (EUROPEAN) INTER-GOVERNMENTAL CONFERENCE : THAT MEANS THE BEGINNING OF 1998. SO THE GREEK CYPRIOTS ARGUE THEY ONLY HAVE 1997 IN WHCIH TO SETTLE THE PROBLEM OF CYPRUS."

    TEXT: WITH TURKEY'S APPLICATION ON HOLD, GREECE HAS THREATENED TO VETO ENLARGEMENT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION UNTIL THE ISSUE OF CYPRUS MEMBERSHIP IS RESOLVED.

    POLITICAL ANALYSTS ALSO POINT OUT GREECE AND TURKEY ARE PART OF NATO -- AND ANY HEIGHTENING OF TENSIONS BETWEEN TWO MEMBERS OF THE WESTERN MILITARY ALLIANCE IS WORRYING.

    KIRSTIE HUGHES -- DIRECTOR OF EUROPEAN PROGRAMS AT LONDON'S ROYAL INSTITUTE FOR INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS -- SAYS TURKEY IS LINKING NATO ENLARGEMENT TO ITS APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP IN THE EUROPEAN UNION.

    TAPE: CUT # 5 - HUGHES "IT SEEMS THAT BEHIND THE SCENES TURKEY IS SAYING IF NATO WANTS TO ENLARGE -- AND IT IS PLANNING TO ANNOUNCE ITS ENLARGEMENT DECISIONS TO THE FIRST EAST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN THE MIDDLE OF THIS YEAR -- THAT IT, TURKEY, SHOULD BE ALLOWED INTO THE EUROPEAN UNION. ITS MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION HAS BEEN LEFT ON THE TABLE FOR MANY, MANY YEARS NOW AND IT IS THREATENING TO VETO THE WHOLE NATO ENLARGEMENT PROCESS."

    TEXT: TAKING ALL OF THESE CONSIDERATIONS TOGETHER, POLITICAL ANALYSTS SAY THE HEIGHTENED TENSIONS OVER CYPRUS HAVE RAMIFICATIONS WHICH GO FAR BEYOND THE ISLAND'S BORDERS. (OPT) ON THE STRICTLY MILITARY FRONT, THE TURKISH GOVERNMENT HAS THREATENED STRONG ACTION -- INCLUDING A POSSIBLE NAVAL BLOCKADE OF CYPRUS -- IF THE GREEK CYPRIOTS GO AHEAD WITH THEIR PURCHASE OF RUSSIAN ANTI-AIRCRAFT MISSILES.

    COLONEL TAYLOR FROM LONDON'S INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR STRATEGIC STUDIES SAYS ANKARA'S STATEMENTS MUST BE TAKEN SERIOUSLY AND NOT TREATED AS MERE SABER-RATTLING.

    TAPE: CUT # 6 - TAYLOR "I WOULD SUSPECT THAT THE TURKISH SIDE AND PARTICULARLY WITH ITS PRESENT GOVERNMENT WOULD NOT SHY AWAY FROM TAKING ANY ACTION THEY PERCEIVE TO BE NECESSARY, ALTHOUGH THEIR ARMED FORCES ARE PRETTY BUSY IN EASTERN TURKEY RIGHT NOW -- AND MAYBE THE GREEK CYPRIOT SIDE MAY JUST TRY TO EXPLOIT THAT - BUT I THINK HISTORY SHOWS THAT THE TURKS, WHEN NECESSARY, WILL ACT WITH DETERMINATION." (END OPT)

    TEXT: (OPT) FOR DEFENSE ANALYST PAUL BEAVER, THE CONTINUING PROBLEMS BETWEEN GREECE AND TURKEY ARE JUST PART OF THE TENSIONS IN THAT UNPREDICTABLE REGION OF THE WORLD.

    TAPE: CUT # 7 - BEAVER "THE PROBLEM WITH THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN AT THE MOMENT IS THAT WE HAVE TENSIONS OVER THE AEGEAN SEA'S FISHING AND OIL RIGHTS - AND THAT IS BETWEEN GREECE AND TURKEY. WE HAVE TENSIONS IN CYPRUS BETWEEN THE TWO COMMUNITIES AND AGAIN - THAT IS BETWEEN GREECE AND TURKEY. WE HAVE TENSION IN SOUTHERN LEBANON BETWEEN HEZBOLLAH AND THE ISRAELIS. WE HAVE TENSION IN SYRIA ON THE GOLAN HEIGHTS BETWEEN ISRAEL AND SYRIA. WE HAVE TENSION ON THE WEST BANK : IT IS NOT A VERY PLEASANT PART OF THE WORLD -- AND WHAT CONCERNS ME AND A LOT OF OTHER PEOPLE FEEL THE SAME WAY, IS THAT ONE SPARK IN ONE PART OF THE AREA CAN CAUSE SOME REPERCUSSIONS THAT WE REALLY DO NOT WANT TO SEE." (END OPT)

    TEXT: MANY DEFENSE AND POLITICAL ANALYSTS BELIEVE IT IS TIME TO REDOUBLE EFFORTS ON THE DIPLOMATIC FRONT TO TRY TO RESOLVE THE CYPRUS ISSUE AND AVOID WHAT MANY EXPERTS CONSIDER A NIGHTMARE SCENARIO : A WAR BETWEEN TWO NATO ALLIES - GREECE AND TURKEY - OVER CYPRUS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/ADEN/NES
    29-Jan-97 2:28 PM EST (1928 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] CYPRUS TENSIONS BY DEBORAH COOPER (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=1/29/97
    TYPE=CLOSEUP
    NUMBER=4-09570 (OUT OF SEQUENCE)
    TELEPHONE=619-1874
    EDITOR=NANCY SMART
    CONTENT=_
    //EDITORS NOTE: THIS REPORT WAS PREPARED LAST WEEK, BUT SOMEHOW DID NOT GET ON THE WIRE. INSERTS ARE ON THE 1/24/97 SOD REEL//

    INTRO: ONCE AGAIN INTERNATIONAL ATTENTION IS FOCUSED ON THE DIVIDED MEDITERRANEAN ISLAND OF CYPRUS, WHERE THE GREEK CYPRIOT GOVERNMENT HAS ANNOUNCED IT WILL PURCHASE A RUSSIAN ANTI-AIRCRAFT MISSILE SYSTEM. THE ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE 426 MILLION DOLLAR DEAL HAS DRAWN CRITICISM FROM THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY. BUT NOWHERE HAS THE REACTION BE STRONGER THAN IN TURKEY - THE PROTECTOR OF THE TURKISH SIDE OF CYPRUS. THE GOVERNMENT IN ANKARA SAID IT WOULD RESPOND MILITARILY IF THE MISSILES ARE DEPLOYED ON THE ISLAND. VOA'S DEBORAH COOPER REPORTS THAT HOPES FOR A RESOLUTION TO THE 23 YEAR-OLD CONFLICT HAVE COME TO AN IMPASSE.

    TEXT: WHEN VIOLENCE BROKE OUT BETWEEN GREEK AND TURKISH CYPRIOTS LAST AUGUST, OBSERVERS HOPED RENEWED INTERNATIONAL EFFORTS WOULD BRING THE ISSUE TO A RESOLUTION. BUT THE GREEK CYPRIOT DECISION TO PURCHASE MISSILES FROM RUSSIA AND TURKEY'S THREAT TO RETALIATE HAS DASHED THOSE HOPES. SABRI SAYARI OF GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY'S TURKISH STUDIES INSTITUTE SAYS THE MISSILES ARE CAPABLE OF HITTING TARGETS ON MAINLAND TURKEY AND HE BELIEVES, IF DEPLOYED, TURKEY WILL HIT BACK.

    TAPE: CUT ONE - SAYARI "IT REALLY REMOVES THE SUPERIORITY TURKEY HAS ENJOYED OVER THE ISLAND FOR MANY YEARS NOW. I THINK THERE IS THE POSSIBILITY THAT THEY WOULD EITHER TRY TO INTERCEPT THE TRANSPORTATION OF THE MISSILES WHICH WOULD MEAN SOME KIND OF CONFRONTATION WITH RUSSIA PROBABLY, OR IF THEY ARE DEPLOYED ON THE ISLAND ITSELF TURKEY WILL PROBABLY TRY TO REMOVE THEM THROUGH SOME STRIKES."

    TEXT: IN 1974, A COUP SPONSORED BY GREECE'S MILITARY REGIME ATTEMPTED TO UNITE CYPRUS WITH THE GREEK MAINLAND AFTER IT HAD WON INDEPENDENCE FROM BRITAIN. THAT ACTION PROMPTED TURKEY TO SEND IN TROOPS TO DEFEND ITS TURKISH MINORITY. SINCE THEN CYPRUS HAS BEEN PARTITIONED BETWEEN THE TWO ETHNIC GROUPS -- THE TURKS IN THE NORTH AND THE GREEKS IN THE SOUTH. THE 122 MILE BUFFER BETWEEN THE TWO COMMUNITIES IS BEING MANAGED BY A 1200-MEMBER U-N PEACEKEEPING FORCE. THE TURKISH SIDE IS RULED BY A LOCAL GOVERNMENT RECOGNIZED ONLY BY TURKEY, WITH THE HELP OF 30-THOUSAND TURKISH TROOPS.

    THE GREEK CYPRIOT GOVERNMENT SAYS IT DECIDED TO PURCHASE THE SOPHISTICATED MISSILE SYSTEM IN ORDER TO UPGRADE ITS DEFENSE CAPABILITIES IN THE WAKE OF THE RECENT UNREST BETWEEN THE TWO COMMUNITIES ALONG THE BUFFER ZONE. BUT NICHOLAS STARVOU, HOWARD UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR AND EDITOR OF THE MEDITERRANEAN QUARTERLY, SAYS THE STEP MAY HAVE BEEN INTENDED TO DRAW ATTENTION ONCE AGAIN TO THE CYPRUS QUESTION.

    TAPE: CUT TWO - STAVROU "THE PURCHASE OF THE DEFENSE EQUIPMENT FROM RUSSIA WAS INTENDED AT LEAST ACCORDING TO THE STATEMENT THEY MADE TO PREPARE FOR POSSIBLE INTENSIFICATION OF THE CONFLICT THERE. HOWEVER, IN MY OPINION IT MIGHT HAVE THE OBJECTIVE OF RAISING THE ISSUE OF CYPRUS TO A CRISIS LEVEL SO AS TO GET THE ATTENTION OF VARIOUS FACTIONS INCLUDING THE UNITED STATES TO ATTEMPT TO RESOLVE THE ISSUE ONCE AND FOR ALL."

    TEXT: A NUMBER OF U.S. AND EUROPEAN UNION ENVOYS AS WELL AS REPRESENTATIVES FROM INDIVIDUAL GOVERNMENTS HAVE TRIED TO MEDIATE BETWEEN THE TWO SIDES IN THE LAST 23 YEARS. THE OUTLINES FOR A SETTLEMENT EXIST IN A 1992 UNITED NATIONS FORMULA BASED ON DISCUSSIONS BETWEEN THE LEADERS OF THE TWO CYPRIOT COMMUNITIES. BUT AS SABRI SAYARI EXPLAINS, NEITHER SIDE HAS DONE ANYTHING TO IMPLEMENT THE FORMULA.

    TAPE: CUT THREE - SAYARI "AND IN CYPRUS ITSELF, I THINK THE SITUATION HAS DETERIORATED. OVER THE SUMMER WE HAD CLASHES ALONG THE U.N. SUPERVISED GREEN LINE. IT IS DIFFICULT TO KNOW THE DYNAMICS, BUT I THINK ONE PROBLEM IT SEEMS TO ME THAT THE GREEK CYPRIOT SIDE I THINK IS TRYING TO GAIN SOME KIND OF LEVERAGE VIS A VIS TURKEY AND SORT OF INTERNATIONALIZE THE ISSUE AND THE TURKS, I THINK, WOULD PREFER MORE TO DEAL WITH THIS ON A BILATERAL BASIS AND BETWEEN THE TWO COMMUNITIES ON THE ISLAND. THERE ARE SOME DIFFERENT APPROACHES AS TO HOW WE CAN EVEN BEGIN TO ENGAGE IN SOME CONFIDENCE BUILDING MEASURES."

    TEXT: HOWARD UNIVERSITY'S NICHOLAS STAVROU SAYS TURKEY HAS NO INTEREST IN REUNITING CYPRUS.

    TAPE: CUT FOUR - STAVROU "LET US NOT FORGET THAT THE PRESENT PRIME MINISTER OF TURKEY, (NECMETTIN) ERBAKAN WAS DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER OF TURKEY WHEN CYPRUS WAS INVADED IN 1974. AND AT THAT TIME HIS POSITION WAS 'LET'S GO TAKE THE WHOLE OF IT.' I WOULD BE SURPRISED IF HE'S CHANGED HIS VIEWPOINT ON THAT ISSUE."

    TEXT: GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY'S SABRI SAYARI AGREES THAT DOMESTIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR BOTH GREECE AND TURKEY STAND IN THE WAY OF RESOLUTION TO THE CYPRUS PROBLEM.

    TAPE: CUT FIVE - SAYARI "I THINK ON BOTH SIDES YOU HAVE GOVERNMENTS WHICH WOULD FACE REAL OPPOSITION FROM OPPOSITION PARTIES IF THEY WENT OUT AND AGREED ON MAJOR CONCESSIONS. THIS IS TRUE FOR THE GREEK SIDE, IT IS TRUE FOR THE TURKISH SIDE. IT IS A NATIONAL ISSUE ON BOTH SIDES AND THE GOVERNMENTS FEEL VULNERABLE IF THEY WERE TO GO OUT AND MAKE ANY CONCESSIONS. BUT I THINK IN TURKEY THERE IS NOW A GOVERNMENT IN WHICH THE SENIOR COALITION PARTNER IS AN ISLAMIST PARTY WHICH HAS ALWAYS HAD A HARDLINE POSITION ON THE CYPRUS AND THE GREEK-TURKISH ISSUE."

    TEXT: THE REAL TASK OF RESOLVING THE ISSUE, SAYS THE GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY SCHOLAR, FALLS TO THE TWO COMMUNITIES ON THE ISLAND.

    TAPE: CUT SIX - SAYARI "AND THE TWO COMMUNITIES DON'T SEEM TO BE ALONG THE SAME LINES AS FAR AS WHAT THEY WANT. WHAT THE TURKS WANT IS A LOOSE FEDERATIVE ARRANGEMENT IN WHICH THE TURKISH SIDE WOULD CONTINUE TO HAVE SUBSTANTIAL SAY OVER IT ON ECONOMIC AND MILITARY AFFAIRS. THE GREEK SIDE WANTS PERHAPS SOME FEDERATION IN WHICH THERE WILL BE HIGHLY CENTRALIZED POWERS AND THAT MEANS, OF COURSE, THE REAL POLITICAL POWER WILL BE IN THE HANDS OF THE GREEK CYPRIOTS. THEY CONSTITUTE A BIG MAJORITY ON THE ISLAND. SO AS FAR AS THE FINAL DIVISION, THERE ARE SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES."

    TEXT: FOR NOW, SABRI SAYARI SAYS SMALL STEPS AIMED AT CONFIDENCE BUILDING SHOULD BE TAKEN. AT HER CONFIRMATION HEARING THIS WEEK, SECRETARY OF STATE MADELINE ALBRIGHT SAID THE UNITED STATES IS PREPARED TO PLAY A HEIGHTENED ROLE IN PROMOTING A RESOLUTION IN CYPRUS. WITHOUT U.S. HELP, NICHOLAS STAVROU OF HOWARD UNIVERSITY SAYS THE SITUATION WILL CONTINUE TO DETERIORATE.

    TAPE: CUT SEVEN - STAVROU "CAREY CAVANOUGH, HEAD OF THE OFFICE OF SOUTHERN EUROPEAN AFFAIRS, WAS IN THE REGION AND WAS SUCCESSFUL IN PACIFYING THE SPIRIT A LITTLE BIT. HOPEFULLY THE US MIGHT MAKE GOOD ON PROMISES THAT THIS IS THE YEAR OF CYPRUS. I SINCERELY HOPE THIS IS THE CASE. I'M OPTIMISTIC THAT THE US WILL DO ITS PART THIS TIME. IF THE US SHOWS THE SAME DETERMINATION TO TACKLE THIS PROBLEM AS WE SHOW IN IRAQ AND BOSNIA AND LIBYA THE PROBLEM COULD VERY WELL BE CONTAINED AND EVENTUALLY SOLVED."

    TEXT: NICHOLAS STAVROU, EDITOR OF THE MEDITERRANEAN QUARTERLY AND PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AT HOWARD UNIVERSITY IN WASHINGTON. NEGOTIATIONS ON CYPRUS'S APPLICATION FOR ADMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION ARE SCHEDULED TO BEGIN THIS YEAR. BUT BEFORE THE TALKS CAN BEGIN A RESOLUTION TO THE CYPRUS ISSUE MUST BE FOUND. (SIGNED)
    NEB/DC/NES
    29-Jan-97 8:54 AM EST (1354 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] CZECH MILITARY (L-ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=1/29/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-209390
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE U-S NAVY AND THE AMERICA'S "MCDONNELL-DOUGLAS" COMPANY ARE OFFERING THE CZECH REPUBLIC MODERN FIGHTER JETS UNDER A UNIQUE LEASING ARRANGEMENT. V-O-A'S BARRY WOOD REPORTS THE MOVE REFLECTS COMPETITION AMONG WESTERN DEFENSE COMPANIES TO SELL NEW FIGHTER PLANES TO COUNTRIES LIKELY TO JOIN THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION.

    TEXT: THE ST. LOUIS-BASED COMPANY SAYS IT HAS OFFERED THE CZECH AIR FORCE A FREE, FIVE-YEAR LEASE OF SEVEN (MODEL) F-18 FIGHTERS NOW BEING USED BY THE U-S NAVY. THE COMPANY SAYS THE DEAL PERMITS THE CZECHS TO QUICKLY OBTAIN NATO-COMPATIBLE AIRCRAFT AND GAIN THE EXPERIENCE FROM WHICH THEY CAN MAKE A LATER DECISION ON WHICH PLANES TO PURCHASE.

    CZECH OFFICIALS REACTED POSITIVELY TO THE U-S OFFER. ONE OFFICIAL SAID THE U-S PROPOSAL IS WELCOME, BUT THAT NO DECISION WILL BE MADE UNTIL OTHER SUPPLIERS HAVE MADE THEIR PROPOSALS. THE MCDONNELL-DOUGLAS OFFER IS LIKELY TO BE JUST THE FIRST OF SEVERAL CREATIVE FINANCING ARRANGEMENTS OFFERED BY WESTERN DEFENSE CONTRACTORS.

    ANOTHER U-S COMPANY, AS WELL AS FRENCH AND SWEDISH MANUFACTURERS, ARE HOPING TO SELL FIGHTER JETS TO THE CZECH REPUBLIC, HUNGARY AND POLAND. THESE THREE COUNTRIES ARE LIKELY TO BE INVITED TO JOIN NATO LATER THIS YEAR. ALL THREE CANDIDATE COUNTRIES ARE EAGER TO OBTAIN NEW WESTERN AIRCRAFT TO REPLACE THEIR SOVIET-ERA FIGHTERS. CONTRACTS WORTH SEVERAL BILLION DOLLARS ARE INVOLVED, WITH POLAND LIKELY TO BE THE BIGGEST PURCHASER. ALL OF THE WESTERN SUPPLIERS HAVE BEEN DEMONSTRATING THEIR AIRCRAFT FOR DEFENSE OFFICIALS IN PRAGUE, BUDAPEST AND WARSAW.

    IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC, THE PROCUREMENT ISSUE IS COMPLICATED BY SHARP CUTS IN DEFENSE SPENDING. MCDONNELL-DOUGLAS, WHICH RECENTLY AGREED TO A MERGER WITH "BOEING," SUGGESTS THAT IT WOULD ULTIMATELY MANUFACTURE THE "HORNET" FIGHTERS AT A CZECH AIRCRAFT FACILITY THAT'S BEING PRIVATIZED. THE U-S COMPANY SAYS THE CZECHS COULD BE FLYING THE HORNET FIGHTERS WITHIN 18 MONTHS AFTER A CONTRACT IS SIGNED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/PCF/RRM
    29-Jan-97 1:55 PM EST (1855 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] EURO STOCKS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)

    DATE=1/29/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-209388
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: STOCKS CLOSED MIXED ON WESTERN EUROPE'S MAJOR MARKETS WEDNESDAY. FOR THE CLOSING FIGURES, HERE IS V-O-A'S PAUL FRANCUCH IN OUR LONDON OFFICE.

    TEXT: MIXED MOVES ON WALL STREET TUESDAY MADE MANY INVESTORS IN WESTERN EUROPE JITTERY ON WEDNESDAY. THAT CAUSED MARKETS HERE TO FLUCTUATE, WITH TWO KEY MARKETS CLOSING LOWER. THE PARIS "CAC 40" INDEX CLOSED DOWN ALMOST 18 POINTS FROM ITS RECORD HIGH ON TUESDAY.

    HERE IN LONDON, THE "FOOTSIE" OR "FINANCIAL TIMES" INDEX OF 100 LEADING BRITISH STOCKS LOST ALMOST 30 POINTS WHEN TRADING CLOSED. A LATE RALLY IN FRANKFURT HELPED PUSH THE "DAX 30" INDEX OF GERMAN STOCKS UP ALMOST 10 POINTS FOR THE DAY.

    ON THE CURRENCY MARKET HERE IN LONDON, THE DOLLAR LOST THREE-QUARTERS OF A CENT AGAINST THE MARK AND ABOUT THE SAME AGAINST THE POUND. GOLD WAS DOWN SHARPLY, LOSING FOUR DOLLAR AN OUNCE IN THE LONDON FIX, CLOSING AT 351-DOLLARS-FIVE CENTS. (SIGNED) NEB/PCF/,,L
    29-Jan-97 1:37 PM EST (1837 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] EUROPE / SUDAN (L ONLY) BY SCOTT STEARNS (KAMPALA)

    DATE=1/29/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-209379
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENT COMMISSIONER FOR AFRICA CONTINUES TALKS WITH EAST AFRICAN LEADERS ABOUT THE CONFLICT IN SUDAN. AS V-O-A'S SCOTT STEARNS REPORTS, EUROPEAN UNION OFFICIALS MET WITH THE PRESIDENT OF ERITREA.

    TEXT: SUDANESE REBELS ARE HOLDING A NUMBER OF TOWNS ALONG THE ETHIOPIAN AND ERITREAN BORDERS. THE GOVERNMENT ACCUSES ETHIOPIA AND ERITREA OF BACKING THE REBELS, A CHARGE BOTH GOVERNMENTS DENY.

    EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENT COMMISSIONER JOAO DE DEUS PINHERO HAS BEEN TALKING ABOUT THE SITUATION IN SUDAN THROUGHOUT HIS ONGOING TRIP IN EAST AFRICA.

    IN ADDIS ABABA, HE MET WITH THE ETHIOPIAN PRIME MINISTER AND THE SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY. IN ASMARA, HE MET WITH ERITREAN PRESIDENT ISSAIS AFWORKI, AND DISCUSSED FIGHTING IN SUDAN AND THE RECENT DECISION BY SOME SOMALI FACTION LEADERS TO WORK TOWARD A TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT.

    /// OPT // PINHEIRO ACT ///

    WE BENEFITED FROM THE EXPERIENCE AND VISION OF THE PRESIDENT IN WHAT CONCERNS THE SITUATION IN SUDAN AND IN SOMALIA. IT WAS VERY HELPFUL IN HELPING US TO UNDERSTAND WELL WHAT IS GOING ON IN THIS PART OF THE WORLD.

    /// END ACT // END OPT ///

    MR. PINHERO SAYS EAST AFRICAN NATIONS SHOULD TAKE THE LEAD IN RESOLVING BOTH CONFLICTS. HE HAS PLEDGED EUROPEAN UNION SUPPORT FOR CONFLICT RESOLUTION THROUGH THE REGION'S INTERGOVERNMENTAL AUTHORITY ON DROUGHT AND DEVELOPMENT, OR IGADD (EE - GAD).

    THE DELEGATION LEFT ERITREA AND TRAVELED TO UGANDA WHERE MR. PINHEIRO IS SCHEDULED TO MEET WITH PRESIDENT YOWERI MUSEVENI. THE TRIP ENDS IN KENYA FROM WHERE MR. PINHERO IS EXPECTED TO MAKE A SIDE TRIP TO TANZANIA TO DISCUSS THE SITUATION IN BURUNDI WITH REGIONAL MEDIATOR JULIUS NYERERE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/SKS/JWH/MMK
    29-Jan-97 10:53 AM EST (1553 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] U-S-TURKEY (S ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPARTMENT)

    DATE=1/29/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-209406
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES IS OPPOSING WEST EUROPEAN EFFORTS TO IMPOSE CONDITIONS ON TURKEY'S BID TO ENTER THE EUROPEAN UNION. V-O-A'S CORRESPONDENT RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT.

    TEXT: THE UNITED STATES IS NOT A MEMBER OF THE EUROPEAN UNION BUT BELIEVES HUMAN RIGHTS PROBLEMS IN TURKEY SHOULD NOT BLOCK TURKISH MEMBERSHIP. FIVE EUROPEAN FOREIGN MINISTERS HAVE TOLD TURKEY IT MUST MAKE PROGRESS ON HUMAN RIGHTS AND TERRITORIAL DISPUTES WITH GREECE BEFORE EUROPEAN UNION MEMBERSHIP CAN BE CONSIDERED.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS NOTES TURKEY IS MEMBER OF NATO AND THE UNITED STATES FAVORS ITS FULL INTEGRATION IN THE WEST.

    ///BURNS ACT///

    THERE IS A STRATEGIC RATIONALE FOR MAINTAINING TURKEY'S POSITION IN EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES WOULD NOT FAVOR CREATING ANY ARTIFICIAL OR ANY NEW CONDITIONS THAT MIGHT PREVENT TURKEY FROM PLAYING A FULL ROLE IN EUROPE.

    ///END ACT///

    AT THE SAME TIME, THE UNITED STATES WILL AGAIN CRITICIZE TURKEY'S TREATMENT OF THE KURDISH MINORITY IN ITS ANNUAL HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT. TURKEY'S FOREIGN MINISTER IS THREATENING TO BLOCK NATO'S EASTWARD EXPANSION IF TURKISH MEMBERSHIP IN THE EUROPEAN UNION IS VETOED. THE STATE DEPARTMENT QUESTIONS THAT THREAT, NOTING TURKEY HAS ALWAYS SUPPORTED NATO EXPANSION. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PT
    29-Jan-97 4:50 PM EST (2150 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [07] U-S / ALBANIA (S-ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPT.)

    DATE=1/29/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-209402
    CONTENT=_
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE UNITED STATES HAS EXPRESSED CONCERN ABOUT THE DEMONSTRATIONS IN ALBANIA AND HAS SENT TWO ECONOMISTS TO TRY TO HELP THE ALBANIAN GOVERNMENT RESOLVE THE FINANCIAL CRISIS CAUSED BY THE FAILURE OF SO-CALLED PYRAMID INVESTMENT SCHEMES. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT.

    TEXT: ALBANIAN POLICE HAVE USED FORCE TO BREAK UP ANOTHER DEMONSTRATION IN TIRANA AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT'S HANDLING OF THE FAILED MONEY PLANS. PRESIDENT SALI BERISHA HAS PROMISED TO PAY MANY ANGRY INVESTORS WHO LOST MONEY IN THE GET-RICH-QUICK PYRAMID SCHEMES. HOWEVER, HE WARNS NOT EVERYONE WILL BE PAID BACK AND THE GOVERNMENT PLAN WILL TAKE TIME.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS EXPRESSES CONCERN ABOUT THE UNREST IN ALBANIA.

    /// BURNS ACT ///

    THE UNITED STATES REMAINS VERY CONCERNED ABOUT THE CURRENT POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC UNREST IN ALBANIA. WE HAVE CALLED UPON ALL ALBANIANS TO ADDRESS THIS PROBLEM THROUGH PEACEFUL MEANS. THESE ARE ECONOMIC PROBLEMS CAUSED BY THE COLLAPSE OF UNREGULATED PYRAMID SCHEMES, WHICH HAVE CREATED FINANCIAL ANXIETY AND HARDSHIP.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE UNITED STATES HAS SENT TWO ECONOMISTS TO ALBANIA TO HELP THE GOVERNMENT DEAL WITH THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE FAILED PLANS. PETER VANDERNADT OF THE FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION IS DESCRIBED BY THE STATE DEPARTMENT AS AN EXPERT ON PYRAMID SCHEMES WHO WILL ASSIST THE GOVERNMENT IN PAYING BACK THE NEARLY ONE-MILLION ALBANIANS WHO HAVE LOST THEIR LIFE SAVINGS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RP/RRM
    29-Jan-97 4:08 PM EST (2108 UTC)
    NNNN


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