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Voice of America, 97-01-30

Voice of America: Selected Articles Directory - Previous Article - Next Article

From: The Voice of America <gopher://gopher.voa.gov>


CONTENTS

  • [01] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)
  • [02] ALBRIGHT / BOSNIA WAR CRIMES ONITER (S-ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPT.)
  • [03] BELGRADE DEMOS (L-ONLY) BY JULIA GLYN-PICKETT (BELGRADE)
  • [04] BULGARIA UNREST (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)
  • [05] EURO MARKETS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)
  • [06] HUMAN RIGHTS EUROPE (L-ONLY) BY DON HENRY (WASHINGTON)
  • [07] NATO: WHAT ABOUT THE COUNTRIES NOT INVITED TO JOIN? BY FRANCIS RONALDS (WASH)
  • [08] POPE / SARAJEVO (L ONLY) BY PEGGY POLK (ROME)

  • [01] THURSDAY'S EDITORIALS BY ANDREW N. GUTHRIE (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=01/30/97
    TYPE=U-S EDITORIAL DIGEST
    NUMBER=6-09998
    TELEPHONE=619-3335
    EDITOR=NEAL LAVON
    CONTENT=
    // EDITORS, PLEASE NOTE: THIS IS PERISHABLE MATERIAL AND BECOMES DATED AFTER 10 P-M E-S-T ON THURSDAY JANUARY 30TH //

    INTRO: WHETHER OR NOT THIS NATION NEEDS A CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT REQUIRING A BALANCED BUDGET IS ONE OF THE POPULAR EDITORIAL TOPICS THIS THURSDAY.

    OTHER SUBJECTS UNDER DISCUSSION INCLUDE THE ETHICS CONTROVERSY OVER POLITICAL FUNDRAISING; THE NEW REVELATIONS ABOUT STEVE BIKO'S DEATH IN SOUTH AFRICA; [OPT] QUESTIONS ABOUT THE F-B-I; [END OPT] AND THE STATE OF BORIS YELTSIN'S HEALTH.

    NOW, HERE WITH A CLOSER LOOK, AND PERHAPS A QUOTE OR TWO, IS ________________ AND TODAY'S EDITORIAL DIGEST.

    TEXT: THE WASHINGTON POST IS URGING MEMBERS OF CONGRESS TO VOTE NO ON THE PROPOSAL TO AMEND THE CONSTITUTION BY ADDING A BALANCED BUDGET AMENDMENT. HERE'S PART OF THE POST'S ARGUMENT:

    VOICE: "CONGRESS THREATENS TO PASS A BALANCED-BUDGET AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION JUST AS THE COUNTRY APPROACHES AN ERA IN WHICH, AS A PRACTICAL MATTER, A BALANCED BUDGET WILL BE NEITHER POSSIBLE NOR DESIRABLE TO ACHIEVE. THE RETIREMENT OF THE BABY BOOMERS, WHICH WILL BEGIN ABOUT TEN YEARS FROM NOW, WILL PUT AN ENORMOUS DRAIN ON THE TREASURY. REVENUES WILL GO DOWN AS THE BOOMERS LEAVE THE WORK FORCE, WHILE COSTS FOR SOCIAL SECURITY, MEDICARE AND OTHER BENEFITS WILL GO SHARPLY UP. ..... THE RIGHT WAY TO GET THE DEFICIT DOWN IS TO CAST THE VOTES TO DO SO NOW, NOT LAY THE BURDEN ON SOME FUTURE CONGRESS THAT MAY NOT BE ABLE TO MEET IT."

    TEXT: THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER IS EQUALLY UNIMPRESSED WITH THE AMENDMENT AS A SOLUTION TO BUDGET TROUBLES, CALLING IT:

    VOICE: "... A GLITZY SIDESHOW TO THE UNGLAMOROUS WORK OF PUTTING A ONE-POINT-SIX TRILLION GOVERNMENT ON A PAY-AS-YOU-GO BASIS. THE FACT THAT THE DEFICIT WAS REDUCED BY 63 PERCENT FROM 1992 TO LAST YEAR SHOWS THAT NO AMENDMENT IS NEEDED."

    TEXT: THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR, MEANWHILE, CALLS THE AMENDMENT IDEA "A DISTRACTION FROM THE MORE IMPORTANT WORK OF ACTUALLY SHAPING A BUDGET THAT LEAVES THE DEFICIT ANCHOR BEHIND." TURNING TO THE ISSUE OF CAMPAIGN FINANCING VIOLATIONS IN BOTH PARTIES AND THE LACK OF ETHICS IN THE PROCESS, TODAY'S SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE HAS SOME PRETTY TOUGH WORDS FOR THE PRESIDENT.

    VOICE: "SAFELY ENSCONCED IN OFFICE, NEVER ... TO FACE RE-ELECTION, PRESIDENT CLINTON REAFFIRMED HIS SUPPORT FOR CAMPAIGN FINANCE REFORM ON TUESDAY JUST BEFORE DASHING OFF TO A MILLION-DOLLAR DEMOCRATIC FUND-RAISING EVENT. CONSIDERING THE PRESIDENT'S OWN ENTERPRISING MONEY-RAISING ACTIVITIES, HIS ENTHUSIASM FOR REFORM HAS A HOLLOW TONE. .... RARELY HAS THERE BEEN A MORE OPPORTUNE TIME TO CLEAN UP THE WHOLE DIRTY BUSINESS OF CAMPAIGN FINANCING. .....THE AMERICAN PEOPLE ARE FED UP. THE SYSTEM IS ROTTEN AND NEEDS TO BE FIXED."

    TEXT: ON LONG ISLAND (NEW YORK), NEWSDAY SAYS 'SLEAZY' SHOULD BE USED TO DESCRIBE CAMPAIGN FUND RAISING TACTICS, ADDING;

    VOICE: "TALKING ABOUT HIS PARTY'S VORACIOUS FUND RAISING DURING HIS FIRST TERM, PRESIDENT ... CLINTON RESORTED TUESDAY TO A FAMILIAR PHRASE IN THE VOCABULARY OF EMBARRASSED POLITICIANS. 'MISTAKES WERE MADE,' HE TOLD THE WHITE HOUSE MEDIA CORPS, 'DELIBERATELY OR INADVERTENTLY.' ONE OF THE MISTAKES ... WAS TO HAVE A TOP BANKING REGULATOR, THE COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, IN THE SAME ROOM WITH DEMOCRATIC FUND-RAISERS AT A COFFEE SESSION WITH BANKERS TARGETED AS POSSIBLE CAMPAIGN CONTRIBUTORS. 'INADVERTENT' IS NOT THE WORD FOR THAT. 'STUPID' AND SLEAZY' MIGHT APPLY...."

    TEXT: IN RETURN FOR AMNESTY FROM SOUTH AFRICA'S TRUTH COMMISSION, FIVE FORMER POLICE OFFICERS ARE ADMITTING KILLING BLACK LEADER STEVE BIKO. TODAY'S ATLANTA CONSTITUTION NOTES:

    VOICE: "[OPT] [MR.] BIKO'S WIDOW AND OTHERS WHO LOST LOVED ONES DURING THAT PERIOD UNDERSTANDABLY WANT TO SEE THESE AND OTHER ADMITTED KILLERS BROUGHT TO JUSTICE IN THE SAME MANNER AS WAR CRIMINALS ARE PROSECUTED FOR ATROCITIES IN BOSNIA AND CROATIA. THERE ARE DIFFERENCES, THOUGH, IMPORTANT ONES THAT LEGITIMIZE THE MERCIES EXTENDED BY THE TRUTH COMMISSION. UNLIKE THE BRAZEN BALKAN EXTERMINATORS, SOUTH AFRICA'S UNIFORMED KILLERS EFFECTIVELY HID THEIR DIRTY WORK, SO FERRETING OUT THE TRUTH REQUIRES AMNESTY TO ENTICE CONFESSIONS. [END OPT] ..... SOUTH AFRICA CAN BE MADE WHOLE WITHOUT REQUIRING THAT ALL UNIFORMED KILLERS AND NATIONALIST TERRORISTS PAY FOR THEIR CRIMES - - DIFFICULT AS THAT MAY SEEM TO COUNTENANCE. ... AMNESTY IS A HIGH PRICE TO PAY FOR HISTORICAL ACCURACY, BUT IN SOUTH AFRICA IT MAY BE WELL WORTH IT."

    [OPT]

    TEXT: HERE AT HOME, NEW REVELATIONS ABOUT FLAWS IN THE FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION'S CRIMINAL FORENSIC LABORATORY ARE CAUSING THE WASHINGTON POST TO WONDER: "IS THE F-B-I GOING DOWNHILL?"

    VOICE: "..... THE F-B-I HAS SHOWN SIGNS OF SLIPPING AWAY FROM THE PREMIER LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCY IT ONCE WAS REPUTED TO BE. ..... A FEW GLARING EXAMPLES COME TO MIND. THE BUREAU'S WORLD-RENOWNED CRIME LABORATORY IS LESS THAN THE RELIABLE OPERATION IT WAS ONCE THOUGHT TO BE. INDICATIONS OF EVIDENCE MISHANDLING HAVE TURNED UP IN DOZENS OF CASES, ACCORDING TO THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT'S INSPECTOR GENERAL. .... THE POSSIBILITY OF CONTAMINATED EVIDENCE CAUSED BY THE F-B-I CRIME LAB'S WORK IS THE KIND OF INFORMATION THAT SHAKES THE PUBLIC TRUST."

    [END OPT]

    TEXT: ON THE SUBJECT OF BORIS YELTSIN'S LATEST BOUT OF ILL HEALTH, TODAY'S LOS ANGELES TIMES SAYS:

    VOICE: "[MR.] YELTSIN'S AILMENTS LOOM EVER LARGER IN THE INTERNATIONAL ARENA. .....THE SHADOW OF POLITICAL UNCERTAINTY HOVERING OVER RUSSIA GROWS DARKER. IT HAS BEEN MORE THAN SIX MONTHS SINCE [MR.] YELTSIN HAS BEEN ABLE TO CARRY ON MORE OR LESS NORMALLY IN HIS OFFICIAL CAPACITY. .....[HIS] HEALTH AND THE FAR-REACHING QUESTIONS IT RAISES ARE A SOMBER REMINDER THAT THE MOST FAMILIAR FOREIGN POLICY PROBLEM OF ALL, RELATIONS WITH MOSCOW, MAY SOON AGAIN BE COMMANDING PRIORITY ATTENTION."

    TEXT: THE NEW YORK POST'S LEAD EDITORIAL HAS SHARP CRITICISM FOR PALESTINIAN LEADER YASSER ARAFAT IN THE WAKE OF ISRAEL'S HEBRON TROOP PULL-OUT AGREEMENT.

    VOICE: "P-L-O LEADER YASSER ARAFAT DIDN'T EVEN WAIT FOR THE INK TO DRY ON THE HEBRON PACT BEFORE RENEGING, YET AGAIN, ON THE COMMITMENTS HE MADE TO ISRAELI PRIME MINISTER BENJAMIN NETANYAHU. LAST WEEKEND, [MR.] ARAFAT TOLD TWO FRENCH NEWSPAPERS ... THE PLO WILL NOT [ITALICS FOR EMPHASIS] AMEND ITS ... NATIONAL CHARTER - - ELEVEN OF WHOSE 33 ARTICLES CALL FOR ISRAEL'S DESTRUCTION - - UNTIL THE JEWISH STATE ADOPTS A CONSTITUTION. ..... NOR IS REVOKING THE CHARTER [MR.] ARAFAT'S ONLY RECENT VIOLATION. ON THE DAY ISRAELI SOLDIERS LEFT MOST OF HEBRON, TWO OF ARAFAT'S 'CABINET' MINISTERS CALLED ON PALESTINIANS TO OUST JEWISH SETTLERS FROM THE CITY AND 'LIBERATE THE REST OF HEBRON.' THIS VIOLATES A SPECIFIC COMMITMENT AGAINST 'PROVOCATION.' ..... YASSER ARAFAT NOW REALIZES ... HE CAN VIOLATE HIS COMMITMENTS WITH IMPUNITY."

    TEXT: FINALLY, THE NEW YORK TIMES HAS SOME QUALMS ABOUT PRESIDENT CLINTON'S MOST RECENTLY EXPRESSED CHINA POLICY IN REGARD TO HUMAN RIGHTS.

    VOICE: "BILL CLINTON OFFERED A REVEALING GLIMPSE INTO HIS THINKING ABOUT CHINA WHEN HE PREDICTED THIS WEEK THAT LIBERTY WOULD EVENTUALLY TRIUMPH THERE, MUCH AS FREEDOM BROUGHT DOWN THE BERLIN WALL. THE DEMISE OF COMMUNISM MAY COME SOMEDAY IN CHINA, BUT IT WOULD BE A MISTAKE TO ADOPT A PASSIVE AMERICAN POLICY BASED ON THAT OPTIMISTIC PROSPECT, AS MR. CLINTON SEEMS TO BE DOING. ..... IT IS WELCOME TO HEAR MR. CLINTON ACKNOWLEDGE THAT 'CONSTRUCTIVE ENGAGEMENT' WITH CHINA HAS YIELDED DISAPPOINTING PROGRESS ON HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUES. UNHAPPILY, HE SEEMS TO BE UNDER THE ILLUSION THAT FUTURE RESULTS WILL BE DIFFERENT."

    TEXT: WITH THAT WE COME TO THE END OF THIS BRIEF SAMPLING OF SOME OF THE EDITORIALS TO BE FOUND IN THURSDAY'S U-S PRESS.
    NEB/ANG/NL
    30-Jan-97 10:38 AM EST (1538 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [02] ALBRIGHT / BOSNIA WAR CRIMES ONITER (S-ONLY) BY RON PEMSTEIN (STATE DEPT.)

    DATE=1/30/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-209467
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: SECRETARY OF STATE MADELEINE ALBRIGHT MEETS TODAY (FRIDAY) WITH LOUISE ARBOUR, THE INTERNATIONAL WAR CRIMES PROSECUTOR. RON PEMSTEIN REPORTS FROM THE STATE DEPARTMENT, THE BOSNIA WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IS SUFFERING DESPITE CONTINUED AMERICAN SUPPORT.

    TEXT: SECRETARY OF STATE ALBRIGHT HAS BEEN A STRONG ADVOCATE OF THE BOSNIA WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL IN THE HAGUE EVEN BEFORE TAKING OFFICE. SHE WILL CERTAINLY GIVE LOUISE ARBOUR STRONG SUPPORT FOR HER EFFORTS. HOWEVER, THE HAGUE TRIBUNAL HAS ONLY SEVEN OF THE 75 INDICTED WAR CRIMES SUSPECTS IN DETENTION -- WITH SERBIA, THE BOSNIAN SERBS AND CROATIA REFUSING TO TURN OVER SUSPECTS UNDER THEIR CONTROL. THE BOSNIA PEACE AGREEMENT GIVES THE SECURITY COUNCIL THE POWER TO REIMPOSE ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AGAINST PARTIES THAT REFUSE TO COOPERATE, BUT RUSSIA AND CHINA WOULD LIKELY VETO THAT EFFORT.

    STATE DEPARTMENT SPOKESMAN NICHOLAS BURNS DESCRIBES WHAT AMERICAN SUPPORT FOR THE WAR CRIMES TRIBUNAL MEANS.

    /// BURNS ACT ///

    WE ARE THE LEADING FINANCIAL CONTRIBUTOR TO THE TRIBUNAL. WE HAVE SECONDED OVER 20 U-S GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES, MOST OF THEM ATTORNEYS TO PROVIDE THE STAFF FOR JUSTICE ARBOUR SO WE CAN PROSECUTE THE WAR CRIMINALS FROM THE BALKANS.

    /// END ACT ///

    THE UNITED STATES IS NOW DISCUSSING OPTIONS WITH ITS ALLIES THAT COULD INCLUDE FORMING A SPECIAL POLICE FORCE TO ARREST THE MISSING SUSPECTS. (SIGNED)
    NEB/RP/RRM
    30-Jan-97 5:49 PM EST (2249 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [03] BELGRADE DEMOS (L-ONLY) BY JULIA GLYN-PICKETT (BELGRADE)

    DATE=1/30/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-209444
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: ON THURSDAY, UNIVERSITY PROFESSORS AND DEANS THROUGHOUT SERBIA STEPPED UP THEIR PRESSURE ON THE GOVERNMENT TO RESPECT THE POLITICAL AUTONOMY OF THE UNIVERSITY AND ACCEPT STUDENT DEMANDS. BUT AS JULIA GLYN-PICKETT REPORTS FROM BELGRADE, A TOP UNIVERSITY AUTHORITY WAS STILL SHOWING NO SIGN OF COMPROMISE AFTER NEARLY THREE MONTHS OF STREET PROTESTS.

    TEXT: THOUSANDS OF STUDENTS MARCHED WITHOUT HINDRANCE FROM POLICE FOR THE 69TH DAY THROUGH CENTRAL BELGRADE TO THE "SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY" (LIBERAL ARTS). INSIDE THAT BUILDING, THE LARGE MAJORITY OF BELGRADE UNIVERSITY DEANS AND OTHER TEACHING STAFF WERE MEETING TO CONDEMN THE POLITICAL MISHANDLING OF THE STUDENT PROTEST BY THE HEAD OF THE UNIVERSITY, RECTOR DRAGUTIN VELICKOVIC.

    DEAN OF POLITICAL SCIENCE, VUKASIN PAVLOVIC, TOLD REPORTERS THE MESSAGE THEY SENT TO RECTOR VELICKOVIC.

    /// PAVLOVIC ACT ///

    WE DECLARED THAT WE ARE NOT READY TO COMMUNICATE WITH HIM. AND THE MAJORITY OF THE DEANS AND THE DIRECTORS OF THE INSTITUTE WITHIN THE UNIVERSITY ARE PRESENT HERE -- THAT MEANS HE LOST HIS LEGITIMACY AS DIRECTOR.

    ///END ACT///

    THE 21 DEANS AND 16 TEACHERS PRESENT AT THAT MEETING GAVE THEIR FULL SUPPORT TO THE BELGRADE STUDENTS' DEMAND THAT RECTOR VELICKOVIC BE FIRED AND THAT SERBIAN AUTHORITIES RESPECT THE POLITICAL AUTONOMY OF THE UNIVERSITY.

    STUDENTS WELCOMED THE ACTION OF THOSE DEANS AS A POSSIBLE POLITICAL SOLUTION TO THEIR ONGOING DISPUTE WITH THE SERBIAN GOVERNMENT, AND SAID IT WOULD GREATLY IMPROVE THE POLITICAL AUTONOMY OF UNIVERSITIES THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY. MEANWHILE, ACROSS THE STREET, RECTOR VELICKOVIC WAS HOLDING AN IMPROMPTU PRESS CONFERENCE, WHERE HE ACCUSED THE DEANS OF ESTABLISHING AN ILLEGAL BODY AND STRESSED THAT HE WAS THE ONLY LEGITIMATE DECISION-MAKING AUTHORITY AT THE UNIVERSITY.

    /// REST OPT ///

    ALSO ON THURSDAY, PROFESSORS FROM UNIVERSITIES THROUGHOUT SERBIA FORMED A NATIONAL COORDINATING PROTEST COMMITTEE TO SUPPORT STUDENTS. THAT COMMITTEE CLAIMS THE SUPPORT OF THOUSANDS OF TEACHING STAFF THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY.

    THE NOVI SAD UNIVERSITY REPRESENTATIVE TOLD REPORTERS HOW THEIR ACTION MIGHT INCREASE SUPPORT FOR STUDENTS.

    /// COMMITTEE REP ACT ///

    THIS IS IMPORTANT FOR THE STUDENT PROTESTS, BECAUSE IF STUDENTS SEE THAT A MAJORITY OF PROFESSORS AND TEACHING STAFF IS INVOLVED IN THIS MASS PROTEST, I THINK THIS IS ENCOURAGEMENT FOR THEM.

    ///END ACT///

    BY JOINING FORCES, UNIVERSITY TEACHERS AND STUDENTS HOPE TO PRESSURE THE SERBIAN GOVERNMENT INTO A POLITICAL COMPROMISE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/JGP/PCF/MMK
    30-Jan-97 1:48 PM EST (1848 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [04] BULGARIA UNREST (L ONLY) BY BARRY WOOD (PRAGUE)

    DATE=1/30/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-209438
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THERE WERE MORE STRIKES AND PROTESTS THURSDAY IN BULGARIA. V-O-A CORRESPONDENT BARRY WOOD ALSO REPORTS THAT IN BRUSSELS, THE BULGARIAN PRESIDENT WAS TOLD THERE IS LITTLE LIKELIHOOD OF INTERNATIONAL AID FOR HIS COUNTRY UNTIL QUARRELING POLITICAL LEADERS AGREE ON A DATE FOR EARLY PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS.

    TEXT: THE BULGARIAN PROTESTS SHOWED NO SIGN OF DIMINISHING THURSDAY, AS ANGRY DEMONSTRATORS BLOCKED THE MAIN HIGHWAYS TO NEIGHBORING GREECE, TURKEY AND ROMANIA.

    IN THE CAPITAL, SOFIA, CROWDS AGAIN GATHERED TO WITHDRAW SAVINGS FROM BANKS AND CONVERT THE STILL FALLING LEV INTO U-S DOLLARS OR GERMAN MARKS.

    TRANSPORT WORKERS HELD WARNING STRIKES LASTING ONE HOUR. THE BULGARIAN TRADE UNION FEDERATION SAID THE STRIKES WERE GAINING MOMENTUM. THE UNIONS HAVE JOINED THE CONSERVATIVE OPPOSITION IN CALLING FOR THE EARLIEST POSSIBLE PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS.

    IN PLOVDIV, THE SECOND LARGEST CITY, VEHICLES BLOCKED ACCESS TO THE CITY CENTER AND CAB DRIVERS SET UP BLOCKADES ON THE HIGHWAYS LEADING OUT OF THE CITY. WORKERS AT COAL MINES IN PERNIK BEGAN STRIKES AND THREATENED TO MARCH ON THE CAPITAL. WORKERS AT THE COASTAL OIL REFINERY SAID THEY WOULD BEGIN BLOCKING SHIPMENTS OF GASOLINE ON FRIDAY.

    IN BRUSSELS, BULGARIAN PRESIDENT PETAR STOYANOV HELD TALKS WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION OFFICIAL IN CHARGE OF EXTERNAL RELATIONS, HANS VAN DEN BROEK. THE E-U OFFICIAL SAID THE 15 EUROPEAN UNION NATIONS WERE READY TO PROVIDE EMERGENCY AID TO BULGARIA, BUT COULD NOT DO SO UNTIL THE POLITICAL PARTIES HAVE REACHED AGREEMENT ON THE DATE FOR NATIONAL ELECTIONS.

    MR. VAN DEN BROEK SAID IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT THE BULGARIANS REACH AGREEMENT WITH THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND ON A PLAN TO END THE FINANCIAL CRISIS. EARLIER MR. STOYANOV WARNED THAT WITHOUT QUICK ASSISTANCE, BULGARIA MAY HAVE TO DEFAULT ON ITS FOREIGN DEBT.

    NEWSPAPERS IN SOFIA THURSDAY DISPLAYED CHARTS SHOWING THAT AT CURRENT EXCHANGE RATES THE BULGARIAN MINIMUM WAGE HAS FALLEN TO LESS THAN FOUR DOLLARS A MONTH. ONE NEWSPAPER SAID THAT BY CONTRAST, THE POOREST PAID WORKERS IN ALBANIA -- EUROPE'S POOREST COUNTRY -- ARE EARNING ABOUT 50 DOLLARS A MONTH.

    THE POLITICAL SITUATION IS STILL DEADLOCKED. THE DOMINANT SOCIALISTS ACCEPT THE NEED FOR ELECTIONS LATER THIS YEAR AND PROPOSE AN INTERIM GOVERNMENT OF NATIONAL UNITY. THE OPPOSITION CONSERVATIVES DO NOT WANT THE SOCIALISTS TO FORM ANY KIND OF GOVERNMENT AND INSIST THAT ELECTIONS BE HELD AS SOON AS THEY CAN BE ORGANIZED. (SIGNED)
    NEB/BDW/JWH/KL
    30-Jan-97 12:15 PM EST (1715 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [05] EURO MARKETS (S-ONLY) BY PAUL FRANCUCH (LONDON)

    DATE=1/30/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-209445
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: MAJOR STOCK MARKETS IN WESTERN EUROPE THURSDAY ALL CLOSED ON THE POSITIVE SIDE. FOR THE CLOSING FIGURES, HERE'S PAUL FRANCUCH IN OUR LONDON OFFICE.

    TEXT: KEY INDEXES OF THE BIG EXCHANGES IN FRANKFURT, LONDON AND PARIS ALL CLOSED ON THE UP SIDE THURSDAY, DRIVEN IN PART BY HIGHER PRICES ON WALL STREET IN NEW YORK.

    LOWER INTEREST RATES IN FRANCE HELP DRIVE THE "CAC 40" INDEX OF STOCKS IN PARIS TO A NEW RECORD HIGH, UP 38 POINTS FOR THE DAY. HIGHER PRICES ON WALL STREET AND THE CONTINUED STRENGTH OF THE DOLLAR HELPED PUSH FRANKFURT'S "DAX 30" INDEX UP JUST OVER 18 POINTS FOR THE DAY. MEANWHILE HERE IN LONDON, THE "FINANCIAL TIMES" 100 INDEX GAINED 21 POINTS AT THE CLOSE.

    ON MONEY MARKETS, THE DOLLAR WAS DOWN SLIGHTLY AGAINST THE MARK AND UP SLIGHTLY AGAINST THE POUND. GOLD, HOWEVER, CONTINUED TO SUFFER SHARP DECLINES IN LONDON, LOSING THREE-DOLLARS-70-CENTS AT THE CLOSE, WHEN THE PRICE WAS FIXED AT 347-DOLLARS-35-CENTS AN OUNCE. (SIGNED)
    NEB/PCF/RRM
    30-Jan-97 1:47 PM EST (1847 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [06] HUMAN RIGHTS EUROPE (L-ONLY) BY DON HENRY (WASHINGTON)

    DATE=1/30/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-209443
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: THE ANNUAL STATE DEPARTMENT REPORT ON HUMAN RIGHTS AROUND THE GLOBE POINTS TO DISTINCT PROGRESS IN SOME PARTS OF EUROPE, INCLUDING RUSSIA. BUT VOA'S DON HENRY REPORTS THE SURVEY ALSO DOCUMENTS CONTINUED MURDER, TORTURE, ARBITRARY DETENTION AND OTHER ABUSES IN THE BALKANS, TURKEY AND ELSEWHERE.

    TEXT: THE STATE DEPARTMENT REPORT SAYS RUSSIA CONTINUES THE POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION THAT BEGAN WITH THE COLLAPSE OF THE SOVIET UNION.

    THE REPORT SAYS RUSSIA'S PRESIDENTIAL AND PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS WERE A PLUS. BUT IT SAYS EXECUTIONS AND OTHER SERIOUS HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES WERE PERPETRATED FOR MOST OF THE YEAR IN CHECHNYA BOTH BY RUSSIAN FORCES AND CHECHEN REBELS. // OPT // HOWEVER, THE REPORTS CALLS THE WITHDRAWAL OF RUSSIAN FORCES FROM CHECHNYA LATE IN THE YEAR "A GENUINE BRIGHT SPOT". // END OPT //

    THE REPORT SAYS EXTREMELY HARSH PRISON CONDITIONS IN RUSSIA WORSENED. IT SAYS UP TO 20-THOUSAND INMATES DIED IN PENITENTIARIES -- SOME FROM BEATINGS, MOST FROM INFERIOR SANITARY CONDITIONS, DISEASE AND LACK OF MEDICAL CARE. THE REPORT SAYS VIOLENT HAZING IN THE MILITARY CONTINUED WITH REPORTS OF DEATHS OR SUICIDES RANGING FROM SEVERAL HUNDRED TO SEVERAL THOUSAND.

    ON THE POSITIVE SIDE, THE STATE DEPARTMENT SAYS THERE WERE NO REPORTS OF SANE PERSONS COMMITTED TO PSYCHIATRIC INSTITUTIONS FOR POLITICAL REASONS AS IN THE DAYS OF THE SOVIET UNION, AND HUMAN RIGHTS ORGANIZATIONS WERE ABLE TO OPERATE FREELY FOR THE MOST PART IN RUSSIA..

    // OPT //

    THE REPORT SAYS PROGRESS TOWARD DEMOCRACY WAS SET BACK IN BELARUS, KAZAKSTAN AND KYRGYZSTAN BECAUSE OF INCREASED PRESIDENTIAL POWER. FLAWED ELECTIONS IN ARMENIA AND ALBANIA ALSO ARE CITED, WHILE UZBEKISTAN, TURKMENISTAN AND TAJIKISTAN ARE SAID TO LAG FAR BEHIND IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF DEMOCRACY AND RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS. // END OPT //

    REGARDING THE FORMER YUGOLAVIA, MUCH OF THE ASSESSMENT IS CRITICAL. POLICE IN THE MUSLIM, CROAT AND SERB PARTS OF BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA ARE SAID TO ABUSE THE RIGHTS OF ETHNIC MINORITIES, INCLUDING WIDESPREAD ARBITRARY ARREST AND DETENTION. THE REPORT SAYS AUTHORITIES GENERALLY DID NOT RESPECT THE RIGHT OF DISPLACED PEOPLE TO RETURN HOME, AND EVICTIONS CONTINUED.

    THE REPORT CRITICIZES POLICE AND ARMED FORCES IN CROATIA FOR DISCRIMINATION AGAINST MINORITY SERBS, AND AUTHORITIES IN SERBIA FOR VIOLATIONS MOSTLY AGAINST ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO AND MUSLIMS IN SANDZAK. // OPT // THE REPORT LISTS MURDER, LOOTING, BEATING, ARBITRARY DETENTION AND RESTRICTIONS ON TRAVEL AMONG THE NUMEROUS TYPES OF ABUSES IN CROATIA AND SERBIA-MONTENEGRO. IT ALSO CITES THE DENIAL OF ELECTION VICTORIES BY THE OPPOSITION IN SERBIA. // END OPT // IN TURKEY, THE REPORT SAYS GOVERNMENT SECURITY FORCES, ESPECIALLY POLICE, AND KURDISTAN WORKERS PARTY ELEMENTS COMMITTED SERIOUS ABUSES, INCLUDING MURDER, KIDNAPPING AND WIDESPREAD TORTURE OF DETAINEES.

    // OPT //

    FOR ALL THE NEGATIVES, THE REPORT IS SPRINKLED WITH MENTIONS OF PROGRESS IN MANY REGIONS OF EUROPE. THIS INCLUDES FEWER POLITICAL DETENTIONS OR DISAPPEARANCES, GREATER FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND ASSEMBLY AND LESS INTERFERENCE WITH HUMAN RIGHTS MONITORS, ESPECIALLY INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS. // END OPT // (SIGNED)
    NEB/DOH/KL
    30-Jan-97 1:47 PM EST (1847 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America

    [07] NATO: WHAT ABOUT THE COUNTRIES NOT INVITED TO JOIN? BY FRANCIS RONALDS (WASH)

    DATE=1/30/97
    TYPE=CLOSE-UP
    NUMBER=4-09579
    TELEPHONE=619-3937
    EDITOR=NANCY SMART
    CONTENT= // ACTUALITIES IN AUDIO SERVICES //

    INTRO: A FEW EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES WILL BE OFFERED MEMBERSHIP IN NATO -- THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION -- AT ITS SUMMIT MEETING IN MADRID THIS JULY. IT IS GENERALLY EXPECTED THAT THE CZECH REPUBLIC, HUNGARY AND POLAND WILL BE INVITED TO JOIN, ALTHOUGH FINAL DECISIONS HAVE NOT YET BEEN MADE. BUT WHAT ABOUT THE OTHER NATIONS OF EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE THAT WOULD LIKE TO JOIN NATO? THIS WAS THE SUBJECT OF A CONFERENCE WHICH JUST TOOK PLACE AT THE CENTER FOR STRATEGIC AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES, IN WASHINGTON. VOA'S FRANK RONALDS WAS THERE, AND HAS THIS REPORT.

    HOST: THE CONSENSUS OF THE EXPERTS WHO ATTENDED THE C-S-I-S CONFERENCE WAS SUMMED UP BY STEPHEN BLANK, PROFESSOR OF RESEARCH AT THE STRATEGIC INSTITUTE OF THE U-S ARMY WAR COLLEGE. IN PRESENTING THIS SUMMATION OF OPINIONS EXPRESSED AT THE CONFERENCE, PROFESSOR BLANK STRESSES THAT HE IS NOT ATTEMPTING TO EXPRESS THE OFFICIAL VIEW OF THE U-S GOVERNMENT A SPECIALIST ON THE NATIONALITIES OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION, PROFESSOR BLANK EMPHASIZES THAT EFFORTS ARE BEING MADE TO ASSURE THOSE COUNTRIES NOT INVITED IN THE FIRST ROUND THAT THEIR ENTRY INTO NATO WILL BE DULY CONSIDERED IN THE NEAR FUTURE:

    TAPE: CUT ONE -- BLANK "WE SHOULD FIRST OF ALL STATE THAT NATO ENLARGMENT IS NOT A ONE-TIME OPTION: NOBODY WILL BE DISCRIMINATED AGAINST IN PRINCIPLE, AND THE DOOR WILL REMAIN OPEN TO THOSE WHO CAN QUALIFY WITH THE ALLIANCE'S STANDARDS. WE NEED TO ENCOURAGE THEM TO CONTINUE DEMOCRATIZATION, CIVILIAN CONTROL OF THE MILITARY, AND TO CREATE PUBLIC SUPPORT TOR THEIR COUNTRIES' ADHESION TO NATO. WE ARE ENLARGING THE PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE. THERE IS GOING TO BE A KIND OF SUPER-P-F-P NOW, WHERE MEMBERS HAVE MORE INPUT INTO WHAT IS DECIDED AND WHAT ACTIVITIES THEY UNDERTAKE. THERE WILL BE A POLITICAL DIMENSION IN THE ATLANTIC PARTNERSHIP COUNCIL. THERE ARE PROPOSALS FOR SUB-REGIONAL PLANS THAT PERTAIN EITHER TO THE BALTIC OR TO THE BALKAN STATES. (BEGIN OPT) SIMILARLY, FOR ORGANIZATIONS LIKE THE BLACK SEA ECONOMIC COUNCIL, WHICH IS COMPOSED OF THE LITTORAL (COASTAL) STATES OF THE BLACK SEA, WHICH PROVIDE A VENUE FOR BOTH SHARED PROBLAMS THAT THE LITTORAL STATES OF THE BLACK SEA HAVE, AND BILATERAL ISSUES THAT MIGHT ARISE. THESE ARE THE KINDS OF PROCESSES THAT ARE PART OF THE FABRIC OF INTEGRATION IN EUROPE. (END OPT)"

    HOST: PROFESSOR BLANK POINTS OUT THAT COOPERATION AND DEMOCRATIZATION HAS BEEN AN AIM OF NATO SINCE ITS INCEPTION IN 1949. HE POINTS TO RECENT AGREEMENTS DEALING WITH THE PROBLEM OF HUNGARIAN MINORITIES IN ROMANIA AND SLOVAKIA, AND ANOTHER TO OVERCOME THE BITTER LEGACY OF THE NAZI OCCUPATION OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA AND THE EXPULSION OF THE SUDENTEN GERMANS FROM CZECHOSLOVAKIA AT THE END OF THE WAR. THESE AGREEMENTS, PROFESSOR BLANK SAYS, ARE EXAMPLES OF THE PROCESS BY WHICH NATO HAS BEEN HEALING OLD WOUNDS:

    TAPE: CUT TWO -- BLANK "THERE IS NO DOUBT THAT A FUNCTION OF NATO FROM THE BEGINNING, AND CERTAINLY A FUNCTION NOW, IS TO EXPAND THE RANGE OF THE DEMOCRATIC COMMUNITY IN EUROPE, AND BY DOING SO, TO CREATE WHAT WE BELIEVE IS A STABLER AND MORE DURABLE PEACE IN EUROPE. NATO'S RECORD OVER THE YEARS, AND ITS RECENT RECORD, AS STATES JOIN TO QUEUE TO JOIN NATO, HAS BEEN ONE THAT HAS FOSTERED A GREAT DEAL OF PROGRESS. THE ROMANIAN-HUNGARIAN TREATY IN SEPTEMBER IS AN EXAMPLE. NATO'S CONTRIBUTION TO STABLIZING THE PEACE IN YUGOSLAVIA, ALTHOUGH IT WAS BELATED, IS CLEARLY TANGIBLE AND MILITARILY SUCCESSFUL. THE DEMOCRATIZATION OF GERMANY, SUPPORT FOR THE DEMOCRATIZATION OF SPAIN, PORTUGAL AND GREECE, KEEPING A LID ON GREEKO-TURKISH TENSIONS: I THINK ALL THESE ARE EXTREMELY CONSTRUCTIVE AND POSITIVE DEVELOPMENTS THAT COULD NOT QUITE HAVE HAPPENED THE WAY THEY DID WITHOUT NATO."

    HOST: THERE IS NO DOUBT, PROFESSOR BLANK SAYS, THAT STABILITY IN UKRAINE IS ABSOLUTELY ESSENTIAL FOR STABILITY THROUGHOUT EAST/CENTRAL EUROPE. BUT POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC REFORM THERE HAVE SO FAR NOT MET THE STANDARDS SET FOR ENTRY INTO NATO. DOMESTIC DEVELOPMENTS IN SLOVAKIA MAY ALSO PREVENT THAT COUNTRY FROM JOINING NATO IN THE FIRST ROUND:

    TAPE: CUT THREE -- BLANK "THE PROBLEMS IN UKRAINE HAVE TO DO WITH POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS WHICH ARE HOLDING IT BACK FROM REFORM AND FROM MAXIMIZING ITS POTENTIAL. ALSO, I WOULD ARGUE THAT THERE IS AN ATTEMPT BY MOSCOW, NOW AND THEN, TO PUT PRESSURE ON UKRAINE AND THAT MOSCOW STILL HAS NOT FULLY COME TO TERMS WITH THE REALITIES OF UKRAINIAN INDEPENDENCE AND ITS SOVEREIGNTY. THE LACK OF DEMOCRACY IN SLOVAKIA: IT'S QUITE CLEAR THAT THERE IS A GOVERNMENT THAT IS TRYING TO WEAKEN CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS OF SEPARATION OF POWERS, OF RULE OF LAW AND CIVILIAN CONTROL OVER THE POLICE AND THE MILITARY."

    HOST: A NUMBER OF MAJOR POLITICAL FIGURES IN THE WEST, INCLUDING FORMER U-S SECRETARY OF STATE HENRY KISSINGER, HAVE SUGGESTED WAYS TO AT LEAST PARTLY MEET RUSSIAN OBJECTIONS TO NATO ENLARGEMENTS. THEY SUGGEST THAT THE NATO SUMMIT AGREE ON THE SAME RESTRICTIONS IN CENTRAL EUROPE AS THOSE WHICH WERE AGREED UPON FOR EAST GERMANY WHEN IT BECAME A PART OF A UNIFIED GERMANY. THESE ARE THAT THERE WOULD BE NO DEPLOYMENT OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND NO PERMANENT STATIONING OF FOREIGN TROOPS IN THE NEW NATO STATES. BUT PROFESSOR BLANK SAYS THAT MOSCOW SPEAKS OF "REINTEGRATING" THE COUNTRIES OF THE C-I-S -- THE COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES, WHICH INCLUDES MOST OF THE REPUBLICS OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION. AND, HE SAYS, RUSSIA IS DEMANDING A VETO ON NATO ACTIONS WHICH THAT ORGANIZATION CANNOT POSSIBLY ACCEPT:

    TAPE: CUT FOUR -- BLANK "MOSCOW WANTS TO REUNIFY THE C-I-S UNDER ITS AUSPICES. SO WHAT THEY WANT IS UNEQUAL SECURITY. ON THE ONE HAND, THEY WANT EQUALITY WITH NATO, BUT THEY WANT A FREE HAND TO DO WHAT THEY PLEASE IN THE C-I-S. AND THIS IS NOT A PROPOSAL THAT IS GOING TO GET ANY SUPPORT ANYWHERE."

    HOST: A SUMMARY OF A CONFERENCE AT WASHINGTON'S CENTER FOR STRATEGIC AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES, CALLED TO CONSIDER THE FUTURE OF THOSE COUNTRIES IN EAST/CENTRAL EUROPE WHO ARE NOT INVITED TO JOIN NATO AT THE ORGANIZATION'S SUMMIT MEETING IN MADRID NEXT JULY. (SIGNED)
    NEB/FSR/NES
    30-Jan-97 7:18 AM EST (1218 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


    [08] POPE / SARAJEVO (L ONLY) BY PEGGY POLK (ROME)

    DATE=1/30/97
    TYPE=CORRESPONDENT REPORT
    NUMBER=2-209426
    CONTENT=
    VOICED AT:

    INTRO: POPE JOHN PAUL THE SECOND WILL VISIT SARAJEVO IN APRIL. PEGGY POLK IN ROME REPORTS THE VATICAN SAYS THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH LEADER WILL MAKE THE TRIP TO PROMOTE PEACE AND RECONCILIATION IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA.

    TEXT: POPE JOHN PAUL THE SECOND HAS SPOKEN OFTEN OF HIS STRONG DESIRE TO TRAVEL TO THE WAR-TORN BOSNIAN CAPITAL.

    HE ORIGINALLY PLANNED TO VISIT SARAJEVO IN SEPTEMBER OF 1994. BUT AT THAT TIME, THE CITY WAS STILL ENGULFED IN CONFLICT, AND FEARS FOR THE POPE'S SAFETY FORCED THE VATICAN TO CANCEL THE TRIP.

    THE VATICAN SAID POPE JOHN PAUL NOW PLANS TO FLY TO SARAJEVO ON APRIL 13TH.

    IT WILL BE THE FIRST TRIP OUTSIDE ITALY THIS YEAR FOR THE 76-YEAR-OLD POPE, WHO HAS UNDERGONE MAJOR SURGERY THREE TIMES IN RECENT YEARS AND REPORTEDLY SUFFERS THE DEBILITATING EFFECTS OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE.

    A VATICAN STATEMENT SAID POPE JOHN PAUL HOPES HIS VISIT TO THE BOSNIAN CAPITAL WILL HELP EFFORTS "TO BUILD A JUST PEACE AND TO RESTORE A FULL AND HARMONIOUS CIVIL LIFE IN THAT COUNTRY."

    ALTHOUGH WARFARE HAS ENDED, ORTHODOX SERBS, ROMAN CATHOLIC CROATS, AND MOSLEMS IN BOSNIA REMAIN SHARPLY DIVIDED. THE VATICAN SAID THE POPE WILL APPEAL TO ROMAN CATHOLICS TO WORK FOR RECONCILIATION AMONG PEOPLE OF ALL FAITHS. "ABOVE ALL" -- THE VATICAN SAID -- POPE JOHN PAUL WILL SEEK -- IN ITS WORDS -- "TO ENCOURAGE THE CATHOLIC COMMUNITY IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA TO CARRY ON ITS ACTIVE CHRISTIAN WITNESS IN EVERY PART OF THE COUNTRY AND TO PROMOTE UNDERSTANDING AND COOPERATION WITH THE MEMBERS OF ALL RELIGIOUS CONFESSIONS." (SIGNED)
    NEB/PP/JWH/KL
    30-Jan-97 8:41 AM EST (1341 UTC)
    NNNN
    Source: Voice of America


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